WATER-ARTPROJECT visualising WATER: 2 voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, an exhibition, website and a book
"


  * type Ctrl+f to find anything on this page
 

Resources

A guide to copyrights of pictures used (or to be used) and links to further documentation and related organisations.

Tags code is as follows:
001-160 = resources for the book: "SAIL, in 80 pages around the world"
    - 001 - 080 are for the frontsides of the pages
    - 081 - 160 are resources for the reverses (mainly etchings and maps)
161 - 185 = used in (´Ocean Memory Game´)
186 - 217 = used in 2014 travel journal
218 - 250 = used in 2015 travel journal

tags: mm (multimedia programm) and postcard

This page relates to the book: "SAIL, a Voyage around the World in 80 Pages" and a multimedia programm.   The links given below are kept updated as much as possible, however files on the internet change fast and there may also be better and more updated sources.
Therefore, your comments and additions to this list are more than welcome: robert@WATER-artproject.com

001 -Contents

There is a contents page here
tags: #Contents #Inhaltsverzeignis #Inhoud

002 -WATER

'Seven Tenths, the sea and its thresholds', James Hamilton-Paterson
Hutchinson - Faber & Faber
isbn 978-0571-22938-3
tags: #seven Tenth #James Hamilton-Patersen

002a -WATER

"There is something primordial about traveling on water, even for short distances. You are informed that you are not supposed to be there not so much by your eyes, ears, nose, palate, or palm as by your feet, which feel odd acting as an organ of sense.
[ Water unsettles the principle of horizontality, especially at night, when its surface resembles pavement.] No matter how solid its substitute -the deck- under your feet, on water you are somewhat more alert than ashore, your faculties are more poised. On water, for instance, you never get absentminded the way you do in the street: your legs keep you and your wits in constant check, as if you were some kind of compass"

'Watermark', Joseph Brodsky,
Farrer, Strous and Giroux
isbn 978-0-374-52382-4
tags: #Watermark #Joseph Brodsky

002b -WATER

tags: 

003  geometer -'GOD -the Geometer'

GOD -the Geometer God as Architect/ Builder/ Geometer/ Craftsman, The Frontispiece of Bible Moralisée
Description: Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy / astrology, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God´s act of Creation. God has created the universe after geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.
Circa 1220-1230, illumination on parchment, 34.4 x 26 cm (13.5 x 10.2 in)
Current location: Austrian National Library
Accession number: Codex Vindobonensis 2554, f.1 verso
Source/Photographer: archiv.onb.ac.at
  ©: anonymous artist, Public Domain Wikipedia
tags: #God #Geometer 

003a  geometer -Eduardo Paolozzi

Eduardo Paolozzi Paolozzi follows William Blake's 1795 print "Newton" in illustrating how Isaac Newton's equations changed our view of the world to being one determined by mathematical laws (1995).
Statue of Newton (after Paolozzi) in the British Library courtyard (London)
  ©: phot.: David Olivier, Wikimedia CC
tags: #Paolozzi #geometer

004  fractals -Sea Urchin

Fractals - Sea Urchin A fractal is a never ending pattern. Fractals are infinitely complex patterns that are self-similar accross different scales. (www.fractalfoundation.org)
Lamarck - 'Sea Urchin' (detail) Jean Baptiste (Pierre Antoine) de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck [1744-1829] Sea urchins are sea creatures that live in oceans all over the world. Similar to sea stars, sea urchins have a water vascular system. Their spherical shape is typically small, ranging from about 3 cm to 10 cm in diameter, and their bodies are covered with a spiny shell. The skeleton of a sea urchin is also known as the test. The shells within the test of these creatures are made up of packed, fitted plates which protect them from being damaged. The spines, outlining their shell, are movable and help to camouflage or protect itself from predators. Sea urchins can vary greatly in colour. On the bottom side of a sea urchin there are five teeth that these organisms use to ingest algae and break down other foods they consume to survive.
  ©: public domain
tags: #Fractals #Sea Urchin

ref. # 004a  fractals -Andreas Ritter von Ettingshausen (1796-1878)

Andreas Ritter von Ettingshausen Section of Clematis, 4 March 1840
whole-plate daguerreotype
annotated ´Etamatic Querschnitt/14 Mai (lin...) vergrössern / Mit dem dag. Hydrogen Kaltlicht [...] / in fünf Minuten / Wein 4. März 1840 A.v. Ettingshausen
  ©: www.christies.com
tags: #Andreas Ritter von Ettingshausen #daguerreotype #fractals

004b  fractals -Leonardo de Vinci's 'Flower of Life'

Leonardo da Vinci Flower of Life A picture of one of Leonardo da Vinci's drawings of the ornamental structure named today 'Flower of Life'.
Date between 1478 and 1519, source: Codex Atlanticus, fol. 307v
  ©: PD = Public Domain; more examples
tags: #Leonardo da Vinci #flower of life #fractals

005  flat earth -Homer's view of the earth (900 B.C.)

Homer's view of the earth Rendition of Homer's view of the world (prior to 900 BC). The Homeric conception of the world involved a flat, circular Earth, surrounded by mountains and by Oceanus, the world-ocean of classical antiquity, considered to be an enormous river encircling the world. The Sun emerges from underneath the Earth, traveling along the fixed dome of the sky, and is shown rising from Oceanus.
  ©: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great_in_the_Quran
tags: #Homer #flat earth

005a  flat earth -Portrait of Luca Pacioli (detail)

Luca Pacioli The small picture, the rhombicuboctahedron , is a just a detail, click on it to see the full painting.
This is where it all comes together:
- Religion: Luca Pacioli (1445 - 1514), a Franciscan friar,
- Science: 'to study science is to worship God' architecturalintentions2012.wordpress.com
- Flat / Round Earth: compare with 005 and 005c
- Art: Luca Pacioli was a close friend of another genius Leonardo da Vinci, some sources name the second person in the picture as Albrecht Dürer.
Links:
History of Mathematics, Portrait of Luca Pacioli, www.ritrattopacioli.it, www.georgehart.com, www.cs.berkeley.edu
  ©: 'Portrait of Luca Pacioli', a painting traditionally attributed to Jacopo de' BARBARI (1495), (Museo di Capodimonte).
tags: #Luca Pacioli #Museo di Capodimonte #Leonardo da Vinci  

005b  flat earth -the Bible's view

flat earth view from the Bible "the One who Builds his upper chambers into the Heavens and has founded his vaulted dome over the Earth." (amos 9:6)
  ©: flipimg.com
tags:  #flat earth #bible

005c  flat earth -Hieronymus Bosch

Garden of Earthly Delights, Hieronymus Bosch Hieronymus Bosch: 'The Garden of Earthly Delights'  (the exterior shutters) 1500-1505
This image of 'the Garden of Earthly Delights' illustrates the Hebrew Weltanschauung which is reflected in the book of Genesis. The Earth is a disc surrounded by two water masses: the upper waters, which occasionally fall to earth in form of rain when YHVH opens the floodgates of Heaven, and the lower waters, formed by the seas, the lakes and the Ocean. In the depths of the Cosmic Sphere lay the sheol, dwelling of the dead until the Judgement Day.
  ©: Wikipedia,   Prado Madrid
tags: #the Garden of Earthly Delights #Hieronymus Bosch

ref. # 005d  flat earth -Beatus Liebanensis - Spanish World Map

Beatus of Liebana of Burgo de Osma 'Apocalypse of St. John'. Biblioteca de la Catedral del Burgo de Osma-Soria.
"Here the sea is full of fish and sea monsters that stand between the sirens. The surrounding land, with the earthly paradise of Adam and Eve intend to illustrate the evangelization of the world. It is a world map to show the inhabited land, sea does not give less importance ..".
  ©: via www.vgesa.com publishes a facsimili, more info there
tags: #beatus #world map

005e  flat earth -'the question of the shape of the earth'

the question of the shape of the earth "In Christendom, the greater part of this long period [Ptolemy to Copernicus] was consumed in disputes respecting the nature of God, and in struggles for ecclesiastical power. The authority of the Fathers, and the prevailing belief that the Scriptures contain the sum of all knowledge, discouraged any investigation of Nature . . . This indifference continued until the close of the fifteenth century. Even then there was no scientific inducement. The inciting motives were altogether of a different kind. They originated in commercial rivalries, and the question of the shape of the earth was finally settled by three sailors, Columbus, Da Gama, and above all, by Ferdinand Magellan."
-William DRAPER, History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874)

"With the decline of Rome and the advent of the Dark Ages, geography as a science went into hibernation, from which the early Church did little to rouse it . . . Strict Biblical interpretations plus unbending patristic bigotry resulted in the theory of a flat earth with Jerusalem in its center, and the Garden of Eden somewhere up country, from which flowed the four Rivers of Paradise."
-Boise PENROSE, Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance (1955)

"A Europe-wide phenomenon of scholarly amnesia . . . afflicted the continent from AD 300 to at least 1300. During those centuries Christian faith and dogma suppressed the useful image of the world that had been so slowly, so painfully, and so scrupulously drawn by ancient geographers."
-Daniel BOORSTIN, The Discoverers (1983)

Text taken from: thomasachord.wordpress.com

the Guardian

  ©: 'A fantasy map of a flat earth'. Art: AntarWorks
tags: # #flat earth #round earth #Antar Dayal #draper #penrose #boorstin

ref. # 006  round earth -'the Properties of Things'

the properties of things 15th-century depiction of Earth covered with spires, from a French translation of ´De proprietatibus rerum (On the Properties of Things)´ by Bartholomeus Anglicus (Bartholomew of England)
  ©: National Library of France, all images courtesy Abrams)
via: hyperallergic.com

tags:  #Bartholomew of England #round earth #the Properties of Things

Interesting to see and read: Alternative Earth Theories

006a  round earth -Hildegard von Bingen

Hildegard von Bingen Medieval depiction of a spherical earth with different seasons at the same time (from the book 'Liber Divinorum Operum' 12th century (1163-1173))
  ©: PD, courtesy State Library of Lucca
tags:  #Hildegard von Bingen #round earth

ref. # 007  Adriaen Coenensz. -'Vis booc'

Adriaen Coenenszoon Vis booc "In 1577, at the age of 63, Adriaen Coenensz from Scheveningen, a Dutch fishing port, started his Vis booc. Over a period of three years he collected all kind of information about the sea, the coasts, and coastal waters, fishing grounds and marine animals: 410 pages written by an expert. Throughout his life he had earned his living from the sea, as fisherman, as wreck master of the county of Holland, and from 1574 as official fish auctioneer at Scheveningen."
Vis booc'. Adriaen Coenensz. S.l., 1577-1580. Paper, 410 leaves, 317 x 215 mm. With watercolour drawings made by himself. - Provenance: Jacob Visser collection 1809. - 78 E 54, fol. 53v-54r
  ©: www.kb.nl
tags:  #Adriaen Coenenszoon #vis book

009 -Jenny Aniver

Jenny Haniver A Jenny Haniver is the carcass of a ray or a skate which has been modified and subsequently dried, resulting in a grotesque preserved specimen.
One suggestion for the origin of the term was the French phrase 'jeune d'Anvers' ('young [person] of Antwerp'). British sailors 'cockneyed' this description into the personal name 'Jenny Hanvers'. They are also widely known as 'Jenny Haviers'
www.nhm.ac.uk/
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015, photo taken in Muzee Scheveningen (NL) www.muzeescheveningen.nl
tags:  #Jenny Haniver #Muzee #Scheveningen

see also the reverse side of this page for Monkfish / Sea Monk / Sea Bishop here: 152

009a -Skate / Ray

Skate or Ray photographed in Visserij Museum, Breskens, Zeeuws-Vlaanderen (NL)
  ©: Robert Schilder 2013
tags: #skate #ray #jenny haniver

009b -Sea Monsters

Sea Monsters Gottfried Franz (1846-1905) - ´The Miraculous Adventures of Baron Münchhausen´ 1896
(underwater and fighting seamonsters)
  ©: PD
tags: #Gottfried Franz #Sea monsters

ref. # 010 -´Kraken´

Shipbreaker Kraken (Promo Version) ~ Svetlin Velinov
  ©: LinkedIn, Facebook, www.velinov.com, Sofia, Bulgaria
tags:  #Kraken #shipbreaker #Svetlin Velinov

ref. # 011  navigation -Astrolabe

Astrolabe "The astrolabe is a very ancient astronomical computer for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. Several types of astrolabes have been made. By far the most popular type is the planispheric astrolabe, on which the celestial sphere is projected onto the plane of the equator. A typical old astrolabe was made of brass and was about 6 inches (15 cm) in diameter, although much larger and smaller ones were made.

Astrolabes are used to show how the sky looks at a specific place at a given time. This is done by drawing the sky on the face of the astrolabe and marking it so positions in the sky are easy to find. To use an astrolabe, you adjust the moveable components to a specific date and time. Once set, much of the sky, both visible and invisible, is represented on the face of the instrument. This allows a great many astronomical problems to be solved in a very visual way. Typical uses of the astrolabe include finding the time during the day or night, finding the time of a celestial event such as sunrise or sunset and as a handy reference of celestial positions. Astrolabes were also one of the basic astronomy education tools in the late Middle Ages. Old instruments were also used for astrological purposes. The typical astrolabe was not a navigational instrument although an instrument called the mariner's astrolabe was widely used in the Renaissance. The mariner's astrolabe is simply a ring marked in degrees for measuring celestial altitudes."

picture: Astrolabe, by Muhammad Mahdi al-Yazdi, Persian, c. 1660.
  ©: www.astrolabes.org
more on: www.hps.cam.ac.uk

tags:  #navigation #astrolabe

011a  navigation -Lunar distance (navigation)

Lunar distance (navigation) In celestial navigation, lunar distance is the angle between the Moon and another celestial body. The lunar distances method uses this angle, also called a lunar, and a nautical almanac to calculate Greenwich time. By comparing that calculated time to the measured local time, the navigator can determine longitude. The method was used for some time during the 17th century, before the introduction of the marine chronometer. A similar method uses the positions of the Galilean moons of Jupiter.
  ©: Wikipedia
tags:  #Lunar distance

ref. # 011b  navigation -Cadran solaire multiple en diptyque (Compass)

Compass MILLER Leonhart (actif de 1602 à 1651), ou MULLER
Cote cliché :09-583110 No D'INVENTAIRE: OA10738
Note de l'image: Face extérieure a : rose des vents à seize directions
Période: 17e siècle Europe (période) - période moderne
Site de production: Nuremberg (origine)
Technique / matière: acier, alliage cuivreux, ivoire, verre (matière)
Dimensions: Hauteur : 0.092 m Largeur : 0.056 m Profondeur : 0.018 m
Mode d;entrée: Don Mme Nicolas Landau, 1979
Localisation: Paris, Musée du Louvre
Crédit Photo: (C) RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre) / Jean-Gilles Berizzi
  ©: www.photo.rmn.fr
Pinterest
tags: #compass #boussole, #rose de vents, #cadran solaire

ref. # 011c  navigation -variations of the Compass

variations of the compass 1700 A new and correct sea chart of the whole world showing the variations of the compass as they were found in the year 1700.
taken from a very readable website amongst other things on the famous timekeeper of John Harrison, called: 'random acts of cartography'

  ©: National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London>
tags: #National Maritime Mueum London #compass

ref. # 011d  navigation -Magnetic Compass, China 11th century

Magnetic Compass -China 11th century Magnetic Compass (c. 11th century) Country: China Inventor: Unknown
The magnetic compass was first used and invented in ancient China´s Han Dynasty around the 2nd century B.C. It was originally used for divination and was not used for navigation until around the Song Dynasty in the 11th century A.D.
  ©: totallyhistory.com

First recorded use of a compass at sea:
- "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan, he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thom.
- 48 point compass www.geog.ucsb.edu/~kclarke/Geography126/Lecture01.pdf
tags: #China compass 

ref. # 011e  navigation -Compass

Compass for navigation By the time of the T'ang dynasty (7-8th century CE) , Chinese scholars had devised a way to magnetize iron needles, by rubbing them with magnetite, and then suspending them in water (early 11th century). They also had observed that needles cooled from red heat and held in the north-south orientation (the earth's axis) would become magnetic(Smith.Inst.)
During the Song Dynasty (960-1279) many trading ships were then able to sail as far as Saudi Arabia without getting lost. The compass was introduced to the Arab world and Europe during the Northern Song Dynasty. The spread of the compass to Europe opened the oceans of the world to travel and led to the discovery of the New World.(www.chinaculture.org)
"The magnetic compass is an invention whose origin is uncertain, but which seems to have moved from China along the land and sea routes toward the west. It was originally a lodestone or magnetized metal floating in a bowl of liquid used to show direction. The Chinese oriented it toward the south, and Indian Ocean accounts describe a magnetized iron fish floated in a bowl, whose head would point south to show direction at sea. Dry-mounted compasses in which the needle rotates on a pin over a paper or inscribed compass rose to show direction may have originated in Europe, in Spain, Italy, or elsewhere. Historians today must base their ideas on written descriptions, which leave many gaps."
www.islamicspain.tv

  ©: www.smith.edu
Also: See for more on maritime China #037 and next
larger image
tags: #china #magnetic compass

011f  navigation -Portuguese Compass

Portuguese compass Portuguese sea compass 1744,
Inscription: Manoel Ferreira Portugal, made in Lisbon in 1744.
wood, metal, iron and paper   ©: Robert Schilder 2015, photographed in Musée de la Marine, Paris
tags: #portugal #magnetic compass

011g  navigation -Cercle de Mendoza

Cercle de Mendoza "Reflecting instruments are those that use mirrors to enhance their ability to make measurements. In particular, the use of mirrors permits one to observe two objects simultaneously while measuring the angular distance between the objects. While they are used in many professions, they are primarily associated with celestial navigation, as the need to solve navigation problems, in particular the problem of the longitude, was the primary motivation in their development"

Joost van Breen's reflecting cross-staff
Invented in 1660 by the Dutch Joost van Breen, the spiegelboog (mirror-bow) was a reflecting cross staff (#150c). This instrument appears to have been used for approximately 100 years, mainly in the Zeeland Chamber of the VOC (The Dutch East India Company)."
The reflecting circle is a complete circular instrument graduated to 720° (To measure distances between heavenly bodies, there is no need to read an angle greater than 180°:, since the minimum distance will always be less than 180°)."
"Joef de Mendoza y Ríos redesigned Borda's reflecting circle (London, 1801). The goal was to use it together with his Lunar Tables published by the Royal Society (London, 1805). He made a design with two concentric circles and a vernier scale and recommended averaging three sequential readings to reduce the error. Borda's system was not based on a circle of 360°: but 400 grads (Borda spent years calculating his tables with a circle divided in 400°:). Mendoza's lunar tables have been used through almost the entire nineteenth century (see Lunar distance (navigation)."
  ©: Wikipedia
tags: #Cercle de Mendoza #reflecting circle

011h  navigation -Pillar Sundial

Pillar sundial Solar clock with a cylinder targeted for the latitude of venice; 17th century.
paper and wood, H 9,7 cm. diam. 1,9 cm. Correr Museum, venice. inv. CLXXIX n.38
  ©: photo Claudio Francini (from the book 'Artempo -where time becomes art')

tags: #pillar sundial #Solar clock #venice

012  navigation -John Harrison H-1

John Harrison Timekeeper H1 "The measurement of longitude is important to both cartography and navigation. Historically, the most important practical application of these was to provide safe ocean navigation. Knowledge of both latitude and longitude was required. Finding a method of determining longitude took centuries and involved some of the greatest scientific minds."

Marine timekeeper, H1.
"This is the first experimental marine timekeeper made by John Harrison in Barrow-on-Humber between 1730 and 1735 as a first step towards solving the longitude problem and winning the great £ 20,000 prize offered by the British Government. Now known as 'H1', the timekeeper is unaffected by the motion of a ship owing to its two interconnected swinging balances. It compensates for changes in temperature and thanks to extensive anti-friction devices, runs without any lubrication."
more: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_longitude
  ©: National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London collections.rmg.co.uk
There's a (New York Times bestseller) book about John Harrison and his famous clock: Pinterest
tags: John Harrison #Timekeeper #H1 #longitude

012a  'navigation' -John Harrison's H1 marine chronometer

John Harrison's timekeeper It took Harrison about five years to develop this chronometer. Its sea trial was in 1735 on HMS Centurion to Lisbon and HMS Orford returning to England. It weighs 34 kilograms (75 lb) and was originally housed in a glazed wooden case about 120 centimetres (3.9 ft) in each dimension. Instead of a pendulum, it employs a pair of rocking bars with balls on the end and constrained with helical springs. The equal and opposite movement of these bars was less susceptible to being affected by a ships movement than a pendulum would be. Harrison's grasshopper escapement connects the bars with the rest of the mechanism. Some of the cog wheels are of wood which has self-lubricating properties. Gridirons provide temperature compensation by modifying the effective length of the helical springs.
The bar-balances like elongated dumbells do not run in conventional bearings. Instead they roll on pairs of plates set at 45° to the vertical and at 90° to each other. These plates, which only move through very short distances are on the ends of long arms pivoted near the bottom of the instrument. The counterweights to these arms are the brass knobs looking like control knobs at the very bottom. This and other devices mean that the clock requires no lubrication. Harrison Jonathan Betts National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, 2007 Ref: The Illustrated Longitude, Dava Sobel and William J. H. Andrews, Fourth Estate, London, 1998. (rectifications?)

Read this article in the Guardian
  ©: Wikipedia Commons
tags: #John Harrison #marine #chronometer #H1 #National Maritime Museum

013  'submersible' - Alexander is Lowered into the Sea

Alexander is Lowered into the Sea Alexander the Great was wondering about the underworld and here you can see him in a self designed, probably the first ever, diving bell. The story continues with that a fish was so large it took all day to swim past Alexander's little window.
Folio from a Khamsa (Quintet) of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi (1253-1325). Date: 1597-98 Medium: Main support: Ink, watercolor, gold on paper Margins: Gold on dyed paper

"Alexander the Great (356-323BC) was a king of Macedon, an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders."   Wikipedia
©: MET, NYC

Diving bells and Observation chambers: www.divingheritage.com
tags: #Alexander the Great #bathyscaphe #diving bell

013a  'submersible' - Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great, diving bell "Just as divers are sometimes provided with instruments for respiration, through which they can draw air from above the water, and thus may remain a long time under the sea, so also have elephants been furnished by nature with their lengthened nostril; and, whenever they have to traverse water, they lift this up above the surface and breathe through it..." (Aristotle, Parts of Animals)
many more examples here: documents-macedon.blogspot.nl

  ©: Public Domain
tags: #Alexander the Great #diving bell

013b  'submersible' - Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great diving bell Quite another drawing of the same event shows his wife in the boat above Alexander holding a pair of scissors to cut his lifeline ..
Alexander exploring the ocean in a glass barrel, accompanied by a cat and a cock.
'Le livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre', France (Paris), c. 1420
  ©:
tags: #Alexander the Great #diving bell

013c  'submersible' -Diving Bell

Tartaglia diving bell From Tartaglia's 1551: methods for raising sunken ships, which includes several designs for diving bells
www.historytoday.com
  ©: Library of London
tags: #diving bell #tartaglia

013d  'submersible' -Alexander the Great under water

alexander the great under water "Again, it looks like Alexander's life-line is detached and that his wife, in the boat, is conversing with another man. He looks a bit sour too .." text: RS

"Beneath the surface of an ocean teeming with fish, King Alexander the Great sits in a bathysphere, a type of diving contraption, glowering as he raises his eyes to the couple above. Sitting in a boat, Alexander's mistress and her new suitor make eyes at each other and hold hands.
The story of Alexander's underwater adventure was invented and greatly elaborated upon during the course of the Middle Ages, especially in German vernacular literature. Alexander, who was a student of the great philosopher Aristotle, was curious to explore the ocean. He had himself lowered into the water in a glass diving bell, taking with him three creatures: a dog, a cat, and a cock. Alexander entrusted his most loyal mistress with looking after the chain that pulled the bell up to the surface. She was persuaded by her lover to elope, however, and she cast the chain into the sea. With the chain uselessly coiled on the ocean floor, Alexander was left to devise his own escape.
This miniature illustrates Jansen Enikel's contribution to the World Chronicle, the ancient history section."
artist: Unknown
'Alexander the Great under Water', (about 1400 - 1410) Tempera colors, gold, silver paint, and ink on parchment
Created in Regensburg, Germany. Leaf: 33.5 x 23.5 cm (13 3/16 x 9 1/4 in.)
  ©: text and picture PD: The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
tags: #diving bell, #alexander the great, #getty museum

ref. # 014  'submarine' -Le Gymnote submarine, in 1889

le Gymnote, first electrical submarine, France First electrical submarine, France 1889
  ©: Wikipedia
tags: #Gymnote #submarine

ref. # 014a  'submarine' -Cornelius van Drebbel

Cornelius van Drebbel The first successful submersible vessel was probably build around 1620 by the Dutch Cornelius Van Drebbel. A wooden watertight boat carried 12 rowers and a total of 20 men. This vessel made successful divings in the Thames River in a depth of 20 meters.
text from http://www.gizmag.com
A painting of the period depicts the Drebbel submarine on the River Thames

link: Wikipedia
read this: www.gizmag.com about Drebble and his designs

  ©: G. W. Tweedale Drebbel's first submarine (Lithographie). 1626
tags: #Cornelius van Drebbel #submarine

014b  'submersible' -Scaphandre rigide

Scaphandre rigide diving suit Le scaphandre d´Alphonse et de Théodore Carmagnolle, premiére tentative de scaphandre rigide anthropomorphe
"An atmospheric diving suit is a small one-man articulated submersible of anthropomorphic form which resembles a suit of armour, with elaborate pressure joints to allow articulation while maintaining an internal pressure of one atmosphere.
These can be used for very deep dives for long periods without the need for decompression, and eliminate the majority of physiological dangers associated with deep diving. Divers do not even need to be skilled swimmers. Mobility and dexterity are usually restricted by mechanical constraints, and the ergonomics of movement are problematic." (Wikipedia)
Link: www.citedelamer.com
More pictures: dien-cai-dau.blogspot.nl
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015, photographed in Musee National de la Marine, Paris
tags: #Scaphandre rigide #

014c  'submarine' - Bathyscaphe

Bathyscaphe "A free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable. In 1960 ´Triëste´, carrying Piccard's son Jacques Piccard and Lt. Don Walsh, reached the deepest known point on the Earth's surface, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench 35,798 ft (10,911 m). The bathyscaphe was equipped with a powerful light, which illuminated a small flounder-like fish, putting to rest the question of whether or not there was life at such a depth in the complete absence of light. The crew of the Trieste noted that the floor consisted of diatomaceous ooze and reported observing "some type of flatfish, resembling a sole, about 1 foot long and 6 inches across" lying on the seabed."
  ©: Wikipedia
tags: #bathyscaphe

015  Portugal -Hendrik the Navigator

Henry the Navigator "Prince Henry (Henrique) the Navigator (1394-1460) was a Portuguese royal prince, soldier, and patron of explorers. Henry sent many sailing expeditions down Africa's west coast, but did not go on them himself. Thanks to Prince Henry's patronage, Portuguese ships sailed to the Madeira Islands (Joao Goncalves Zarco, 1420), rounded Cape Bojador (Eannes, 1434), sailed to Cape Blanc (Nuno Tristao, 1441), sailed around Cap Vert (1455), and went as far as the Gambia River (Cadamosto, 1456) and Cape Palmas (Gomes, 1459-1460).
School of Navigation: About 1418, Prince Henry started the first school for oceanic navigation along with an astronomical observatory at Sagres, Portugal. In this school, people were trained in nagivation, map-making, and science, in order to sail down the west of Africa."
  ©: text: www.enchantedlearning.com
tags: #Hendrik the Navigator #Henry the Navigator

See also ref. #196

015a  Portugal -Volta do Mar

Volta do Mar "'Volta do mar', 'volta do mar largo' or 'volta do largo', (the phrase in Portuguese means literally turn of the sea but also return from the sea) is a navigational technique perfected by Portuguese navigators during the Age of Discovery in the late fifteenth century, using the dependable phenomenon of the great permanent wind wheel, the North Atlantic Gyre. This was a major step in the history of navigation, when an understanding of winds in the age of sail was crucial to success: the European sea empires would never have been established had the Europeans not figured out how the trade winds worked"
General depiction of the winds (green) and currents (blue) and the approximate sailing routes (red) of Portuguese navigators during the era of Henry the Navigator (c.1430-1460). The further south the ships go, the wider the return, and the more open sea sailing required. Based on the description in Gago Coutinho, 1951, A Náutica dos Descobrimentos"
  ©: CC wikipedia published by Walrasiad
tags: #Volta do Mar

015b  Portugal -Cantino Planisphere

Cantino Planisphere The Cantino planisphere of 1502 shows the line of the Treaty of Tordesillas. anonymous Portuguese (1502) - Biblioteca Estense Universitaria, Modena, Italy
"The Cantino planisphere, completed by an unknown Portuguese cartographer in 1502, is one of the most precious cartographic documents of all times. It depicts the world, as it became known to the Europeans after the great exploration voyages at the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century to the Americas, Africa and India. It is now kept in the Biblioteca Universitaria Estense, Modena, Italy"
See also ref. #148 (Diogo Ribeiro map)
  ©: PD wikipedia
tags: #Cantino Planisphere #Treaty of Tordesillas

015c  Portugal -Pradão de Santa Maria

Pradao de Santa Maria Padrão de Santa Maria, de Diogo Cão, clichè de um sargento canhoneiro Cuanza, fotos para a exposição colonial portuguesa (1934)

1482, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão reached the Cape of Santa Maria when looking for the southernmost point of the African continent. The expedition's goal was to look for a passage that would allow circumnavigate Africa. To claim the Portuguese sovereignty, Diogo Cao erected on top of the out a standard, which remained in that position until his transfer to Lisbon in 1892. On his first trip Diogo Cão did not reach your goal, and returned to Portugal with slaves."

  ©: PD Wikipedia (by Victorcouto "Cette photo faisait partie d'un ensemble déstiné a l'Exposição Colonial Portuguesa" de 1934
tags: #pradao #santa maria #diogo cao

016  Portugal -Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama's depart for India Alfredo Roque GAMEIRO (1864-1935) 'A partida de Vasco da Gama a Ìndia in 1497' (1900) Dimensions fol.: 42 x 57 cm. Current location: National Library of Portugal Cota local: E. 294 A.
  ©: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal

tags: #vasco da gama
TIMELINE

ref. # 016a  Portugal -Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama portrait on stamp Stamp with portuguese explorer, discoverer Vasco da Gama
  ©:
tags: #vasco da gama
TIMELINE

ref. # 017  Swimming -the Art of Swimming

the Art of Swimming bibliodyssey.blogspot.com: Interesting blog, fine drawings.
Text and drawings are property of Capital Collections - The Image Library of Edinburgh City Libraries and Museums and Galleries"
"The Art of Swimming. Illustrated by proper figures. With advice for bathing. By Monsìeur Thevenot. Done out of French. To which is prefixed a prefatory discourse concerning artificial swimming, or keeping ones self above water by several small portable engines, in cases of danger" (1699)
  ©:bibliodyssey.blogspot.com
tags:  #swimming

017a  Swimming -Hippolyte Bayard: 'Self Portrait as a Drowned Man'

Self Portrait as a Drowned Man "Experimenting during his time off from his job as a civil servant, Hippolyte Bayard purportedly invented photography earlier than Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre in France and William Henry Fox Talbot in England, the two men traditionally credited with its invention. Bayard was reportedly persuaded by a friend of Daguerre to postpone the announcement of his findings, thus missing the opportunity to be recognized as the inventor of the medium. In 1840 he responded to this injustice by creating perhaps the first example of political-protest photography, a portrait of himself as a drowned man, upon which he wrote:"
the J.Paul Getty museum

.. As a reaction to the injustice he felt he had been subjected to, Hippolyte BAYARD created the first staged photograph entitled :' Self Portrait as a Drowned Man' (1840). In the image, he pretends to have committed suicide, sitting and leaning to the right. Bayard wrote on the back of his most notable photograph:
"The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard, inventor of the process that has just been shown to you. As far as I know this indefatigable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery. The Government which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. Oh the vagaries of human life....! ... He has been at the morgue for several days, and no-one has recognized or claimed him. Ladies and gentlemen, you'd better pass along for fear of offending your sense of smell, for as you can observe, the face and hands of the gentleman are beginning to decay."
  ©:Wikipedia
tags:  #swimming #Hippolyte Bayard; #

018  'E la Nave Vare' .. -'Fishing for souls'

fishing for Souls ,Adriaen van de venne 'Fishing for Souls', Adriaen Pietersz. van de VENNE (1614)
At the left are the Protestant north Netherlanders, and at the right the Catholic southerners. Both parties fish for souls in the wide river dividing them. The Protestants' catch is greater than that of the Catholics. Moreover, at the left the sun is shining and the trees are in leaf. This is a reference to a psalm: the righteous will flourish like a tree bearing fruit, whose leaves never wither.
oilpaint on panel 98.5x187.8 cm
  ©: www.rijksmuseum.nl
tags: #fishing for souls #Adriaen van de Venne #Rijksmuseum

ref. # 018a  'E la Nave Vare' .. -´Immortal jellyfish´

turritopsis nutricula "The turritopsis nutricula species of jellyfish may be the only animal in the world to have truly discovered the fountain of youth.
Since it is capable of cycling from a mature adult stage to an immature polyp stage and back again, there may be no natural limit to its life span. Scientists say the hydrozoan jellyfish is the only known animal that can repeatedly turn back the hands of time and revert to its polyp state (its first stage of life).
The key lies in a process called transdifferentiation, where one type of cell is transformed into another type of cell. Some animals can undergo limited transdifferentiation and regenerate organs, such as salamanders,which can regrow limbs. Turritopsi nutricula, on the other hand, can regenerate its entire body over and over again. Researchers are studying the jellyfish to discover how it is able to reverse its aging process.
Because they are able to bypass death, the number of individuals is spiking. They're now found in oceans around the globe rather than just in their native Caribbean waters. "We are looking at a worldwide silent invasion," says Dr. Maria Miglietta of the Smithsonian Tropical Marine Institute"
text via Tumblr - Robotique
  ©: Worldhealth.net
tags: #immortal jellyfish #turritopsis nutricula

ref. # 018b  'E la Nave Vare' .. -the Movie

e la nave vareba In 1914, a cruise ship sets sail from Naples to spread the ashes of beloved opera singer Edmea Tetua (Janet Suzman) near Erimo, the isle of her birth. During the voyage, the eclectic array of passengers discovers a group of Serbian refugees aboard the vessel. Peace and camaraderie abound until the ship is descended upon by an Austrian flagship. The Serbians are forced to board it, but naturally they resist, igniting a skirmish that ends in destruction.
  ©: Federico Fellini
tags: #Federico Fellini #e la nave vare

ref. # 018c  'E la Nave Vare' .. -Shipwreck

James Hamilton-Paterson Shipwreck In his long essay Sea Burial James Hamilton-Paterson tells an extraordinary story about the mid 19 century shipwreck of Italian writer/philosopher Giusto Forbici, also called Justus Forfex. He was the sole survivor of the wreck and found himself stranded on a waterless coral islet somewhere amongst the archipelagos of south east Asia. Hamilton-Paterson is careful not to divulge the whereabouts of this islet, though it is probably in the Sulu Sea. Forbici, he says, salvaged from the wreck nine large sealed glass jars which he at first assumed held water but later found in fact contained ink. It was an ink made out of organic materials, including that substance extruded by squid when alarmed. This ink was all he had to slake his thirst during the many weeks he subsisted on the islet. When he was rescued by a party of Bajau - sea gypsies - who had come to the islet to inter one of their leaders, Forbici was in a state of delirium in which the real and the imagined were inextricably entwined together; and for the rest of his life would try to understand this unique and paradoxical experience.
  ©: picture:© James Morgan (UK);  text from: mjedmo.wordpress.com
tags: #James Hamilton-Paterson

018d  'E la Nave Vare' .. -scaterring ashes

scattering ashes The 9 Things No One Tells You About Scattering Ashes
What our 'Mourning, Noon & Night' columnist wishes someone had told her before she spread her late husband's ashes around the globe   ©: website Tré Miller Rodríguez modernloss.com
  ©: picture 'prasad' (offering to the river Ganges) from the book "Banaras -city of God, Heart of India" by Robert Schilder

tags: #ashes #death

ref. # 019   What about mermaids? -'Caribbean Mermaid'

Caribbean Mermaid 'Arthur Spiderwick's Field Guide to the Fantastical World Around You', also known simply as 'Arthur Spiderwick's Field Guide', is the book written by Arthur Spiderwick about an Invisible World.
Mermaids occur in mythologies and folklore all over the world. The first stories appeared in ancient Assyria, in which the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into a mermaid out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover. Historical accounts of mermaids, such as those reported by Christopher Columbus during his exploration of the Caribbean, may have been inspired by manatees and similar aquatic mammals. The Greek variation is a creature called the Siren, who lures seamen to crash with their ships against the cliffs by singing otherwordly, beautiful songs."
  ©: spiderwick.wikia.com

tags: #mermaid #caribbean mermaid

ref. # 019a   What about mermaids? -'Spud'

SPUD cigarettes An odd advertisement for Spud Cigarettes, America's first menthol cigarette.
  ©: www.cigarettespedia.com

"The Mermaid
A mermaid found a swimming lad,
Picked him for her own,
Pressed her body to his body,
Laughed; and plunging down Forgot in cruel happiness
That even lovers drown,"

  poem by William Butler Yeats

tags: #mermaid #spud #poem #William butler Yeats

ref. # 019b   What about mermaids? -Jinn

Jinn "The Jinn (also dJinn or genies) are spiritual creatures in Islam and Arabic folklore. They are mentioned in the Qur'an and other Islamic texts and inhabit an unseen world in dimensions beyond the visible universe of humans. Together, the Jinn, humans and angels make up the three sapient creations of God. The Qur'an mentions that the Jinn are made of a smokeless and "scorching fire", but also physical in nature, being able to interact physically with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. Like human beings, the Jinn can also be good, evil, or neutrally benevolent and hence have freewill like humans and unlike angels. The Jinn are mentioned frequently in the Qur'an, and the 72nd sura is titled Sũrat al-Jinn."
  ©: cryptidz.wikia.com
tags: #mermaid #jinn

019c   What about mermaids? -Cave paintings in the Sahara

mermaids in the Sahara The remote Cave of Swimmers is located at Wadi Sura in the mountainous Gilf Kebir plateau of the Sahara, in southwest Egypt near the Libyan border. Wadi Sora itself is a sheltered inlet within a promontory of the main plateau. The main painted caves were discovered by the Hungarian explorer LászlO Almásy in October 1933 during the Frobenius expedition. They contain the diminuitive but defined 'swimming figures. www.bradshawfoundation.com

link: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_of_Swimmers

  ©: Creative Commons the British Museum
tags: #Gilf Kebir #sahara #mermaids

019d   What about mermaids? -Rùzena Maturová as the first Rusalka

Ruzena Maturova as the first Rusalka Rùzena Maturová as the first Rusalka (1901)
'Rusalka' is one of the most successful Czech operas, and represents a cornerstone of the repertoire of Czech opera houses.
A Rusalka is a water sprite from Slavic mythology, usually inhabiting a lake or river. Source: Burghauser, Jarmil: Antonin Dvorák, p. 101
  ©: author unknown
tags: #Rusalka, #Dvorak, #mermaids

020  Roman empire -Neptune

Neptune "Neptune was the name that ancient Romans gave to the Greek god of the sea and earthquakes, Poseidon. He was the brother of Jupiter (Zeus) and of Pluto (Hades). After the defeat of their father Saturn (Cronos), the three brothers divided the world in three parts to be ruled by one of the three brothers. Jupiter took the sky, Neptune the sea and Pluto the underworld." www.windows2universe.org

Neptune is the god of the sea in Roman mythology, a brother of Jupiter and Pluto. He is analogous but not identical to the god Poseidon of Greek mythology. The Roman conception of Neptune owed a great deal to the Etruscan god Nethuns. Originally he was an Italic god paired with Salacia, possibly the goddess of the salt water. At an early date (399 BC) he was identified with Poseidon, when the Sibylline books ordered a lectisternium in his honour (Livy v. 13)". "In earlier times it was the god Portunes or Fortunus who was thanked for naval victories, but Neptune supplanted him in this role by at least the first century BC, when Sextus Pompeius called himself "son of Neptune."
"Neptune was associated as well with fresh water, as opposed to Oceanus, god of the world-ocean."
"Like Poseidon, Neptune was also worshipped by the Romans as a god of horses, under the name Neptune Equester, patron of horse-racing."
"Neptune was also considered the legendary progenitor god of a Latin stock, the Faliscans - ancient Italian people - who called themselves Neptunia proles. In this respect he was the equivalent of Mars, Janus, Saturn and even Jupiter among Latin tribes."
www.crystalinks.com
  ©: Tobacco product art 1860-1870 (Wikimedia commons)
tags: #Neptune

021  Roman empire -'Naval battle between Romans'

The naumaquia Naval battle between Romans 'The naumaquia' (Naval battle between Romans). Oil on canvas, 125.6 x 200.5 cm. This work was presented at the National Society of Fine Arts in Paris, 1894. He received the gold medal at the International Exposition in Atlanta in 1895. Painter: Ulpiano CHECA

The naumachia (in Latin naumachia, from the Ancient Greek naumachuìa, literally "naval combat") in the Ancient Roman world referred to both the staging of naval battles as mass entertainment and the basin (or more broadly, the complex) in which this took place. Read more: us.wow.com
  ©: Wikimedia
tags: #naumaquia; #Checa

ref. # 021a  Roman empire -Poseidon

Poseidon "Poseidon was the Greek god of the sea and earthquakes. Poseidon was depicted as a bearded man with long hair, holding a trident and accompanied by dolphins and fish. He had the reputation for having a very bad temper. The symbol of Poseidon's power was the three pronged spear known as the trident.
The storms and earthquakes were a reflection of his furious rage. When he was angry, he split mountains and threw them into the sea to make islands. Poseidon was the brother of Zeus and Hades. He married Amphitrite who was one of his attendants, the Nereids. The Greek god Poseidon was known to the Romans with the name of Neptune."
text:  www.windows2universe.org

Poseidon (Roman equivalent is Neptune) is one of the twelve Olympian deities of the pantheon in Greek mythology, brother of Zeus and Hades (Pluto). His main domain is the ocean, and he is called the 'God of the Sea'. Additionally, he is referred to as 'Earth-Shaker' due to his role in causing earthquakes, and has been called the "tamer of horses". He is usually depicted as an older male with curly hair and beard."
"Poseidon, like his brothers and sisters, lived the first years of his life in the dark belly of his father Cronus. By the time their brother, Zeus, with the magical potion of Metis, managed to get them out of the peculiar prison."
There are also other myths about the birth of Poseidon. Thus, the ancient poets tell that Rhea in the case of Poseidon managed to fool her husband. Rather than giving him to swallow the divine infant, she gave him, wrapped in swaddling clothes, a newborn horse. Then, in order to conceal the baby's crying from Cronus, Rhea put it to grow among a flock of sheep."
"The nymph Arne took over the growing up of Poseidon. Someday Cronus went through there, because he thought he heard the crying of a baby, and asked Arne if there was a baby nearby. She replied to him with cleverness, that how a baby could be born by sheep or by her that was single. Cronus was fooled and ashamed by her answer and left."
www.greek-mythology-pantheon.com
  ©: Greek bronze sculpture depicting the god Poseidon. 'Poseidon Soter at Artemisium' (c. 575 B.C.). The statue was found in the Aegean Sea in 1926. Image courtesy of the National Archaelogical Museum at Athens, Greece.
tags: #Poseidon

ref. # 021b  Roman empire -Oceanus

Oceanus "Oceanus refers to the ocean which the Greeks and Roman thought of as life circling the world 005. Strictly speaking, it was the ocean-stream at the middle of earth in which floated the habitable hemisphere. In Greek mythology this world-ocean was personified as a Titan, a son of Uranus and Gaia. In ancient Greek beliefs this Titan is often described as having the upper body of a muscular man with a long beard and the lower body of a serpent." Oceanus Trevi fountain, Rome

"Oceanus was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world." Wikipedia

"Oceanus was an ancient Greek god. According to one version, he was born by the union of the primal gods Chaos and Gaea, sanctified by god Eros. Another version has it that he was one of the twelve Titans, thus a son of Gaea and Uranus.
Oceanus was married to his sister, Tethys, with whom he had numerous children, called Oceanids. These were the lesser gods and goddesses of the rivers, the sea, and the springs. In fact, Oceanus and Tethys were so fertile that the overproduction of the aqueous elements of nature would cause floods; so, they divorced to stop this from happening. The couple was not involved in the Titanomachy against Zeus, so the latter let them continue their reign in their watery kingdom.
In ancient Greek art, Oceanus was depicted having bull horns and the tail of a serpentine fish instead of legs. He was later considered as a simple sea god or the personification of the sea. Oceanus is also called Ocean, Oceanos. www.greekmythology.com
  ©: picture hadesrocks.blogspot.nl
tags: #oceanus

021c  Roman empire -'Ulysses and the sirens'

Ulysses and the Sirens Ulysses and the Sirens. Detail from an Attic red-figured stamnos, ca. 480-470 BC. From Vulci. Adolf Furtwängler (drawing); Siren Painter (vase) - digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de
  ©: PD
tags: #Odysseus #Sirens #Ulysses

ref. # 021d  Greece -the world according to Herodotus 450 bc

the world according to Herodotus 450 bc Modern reconstruction of the Oikumene [inhabited world] of the Greek historian Herodotus (active 440-425 B.C.). "The 'Histories' (from which the content of this map is taken) were occasionally criticized in antiquity, but modern historians and philosophers generally take a positive view. Despite the controversy, Herodotus still serves as the primary and often only, source for events in the Greek world, Persian Empire, and the region generally in the two centuries leading up until his own day. Herodotus, like many ancient historians, preferred an element of show to purely analytic history, aiming to give pleasure with "exciting events, great dramas, bizarre exotica." As such, certain passages have been the subject of controversy and even some doubt, both in antiquity and today" wikipedia

  ©: picture from: www.henry-davis.com
tags:  #herodotus

ref. # 022  Greece -Pytheas

Pytheas - portrait "Pytheas of Massalia (Latin: Massilia - 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille). He made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe in about 325 BC, but his description of it, widely known in Antiquity, has not survived.
In this voyage he circumnavigated and visited a considerable part of Great Britain. He is the first person on record to describe the Midnight Sun. The theoretical existence of a Frigid Zone, and temperate zones where the nights are very short in summer and the sun does not set at the summer solstice, was already known. Similarly, reports of a country of perpetual snow and darkness (the country of the Hyperboreans) had reached the Mediterranean some centuries before. Pytheas is the first known scientific visitor and reporter of the Arctic, polar ice, and the Germanic tribes. He introduced the idea of distant Thule to the geographic imagination, and his account of the tides is the earliest known to suggest the moon as their cause."
  ©: text from 'Wikipedia'
tags: #Pytheas
TIMELINE

022a  Greece -Odysseus and the Sirens

Odysseus and the Sirens "The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work ascribed to Homer. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon, and is the second oldest extant work of Western literature, the Iliad being the oldest. Scholars believe it was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia."
"Returning to Circe's island, they were advised by her on the remaining stages of the journey. They skirted the land of the Sirens, who sang an enchanting song that normally caused passing sailors to steer toward the rocks, only to hit them and sink. All of the sailors except for Odysseus, who was tied to the mast as he wanted to hear the song, had their ears plugged up with beeswax. They then passed between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, Odysseus losing six men to Scylla, and landed on the island of Thrinacia. Zeus caused a storm which prevented them leaving. While Odysseus was away praying, his men ignored the warnings of Tiresias and Circe and hunted down the sacred cattle of the sun god Helios as their food had run short. The Sun God insisted that Zeus punish the men for this sacrilege. They suffered a shipwreck as they were driven towards Charybdis. All but Odysseus were drowned; he clung to a fig tree above Charybdis. Washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, he was compelled to remain there as Calypso's lover until she was ordered by Zeus, via Hermes, to release Odysseus."
TIMELINE
  ©: 'Odysseus and the Sirens' by Herbert James DRAPER (c. 1909), oil on canvas, 177x213,5 cm. Ferens Art Gallery   Public Domain Wikipedia
tags:  #Odysseus #Odyssey #Herbert James Draper #Ferens Art Gallery

ref. # 022e  Greece -Map of the Ancient Greek World

map of the ancient Greek world Homann Heirs Map of Ancient Greece the Eastern Mediterranean - Geographicus - Graecia-homannheirs 1741
This is one of the Homann Heirs finest and most appealing maps of the ancient Greek World. Map centers on Greece but includes the entirety of the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa. Also includes the Black Sea as far as the Crimea and the sea of Azov. Extends north as far as Sarmatia and Pannonia. Includes Italy, Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia. Upper left quadrant features a decorative title cartouche adorned with the rectos and versos of 12 ancient Greek coins with explanatory numbered references outside the top border of the map. Show the important Greek provinces and colonies through the Mediterranean, especially in modern day turkey and in the Italian peninsula. Includes nautical military and trade routes. This map was drawn by Joanes Christoph Harenberg for inclusion the 1752 Homann Heirs Maior Atlas Scholasticus ex Triginta Sex Generalibus et Specialibus... Most early Homann atlases were 'made to order' or compiled of individual maps at the request of the buyer. However, this rare atlas, composed of 37 maps and charts, was issued as a 'suggested collection' of essential Homann Heirs maps. A fine copy of an important map.   ©: This file was provided to Wikimedia Commons by Geographicus Rare Antique Maps, a specialist dealer in rare maps and other cartography
tags: 

022f  Arab culture -Babylonian Map

Babylonian map on clay tablet "The Babylonian map of the world sheds light on ancient perspectives. A damaged clay tablet discovered in the late 1800s in Sippar, Iraq is said to be the oldest map of the world. It was discovered on the banks of the Euphrates River, and published in 1899. Now housed at the British Museum, the damaged clay tablet dates back to 600 BC, and depicts an early interpretation of the layout of the world. At 122 x 82 mm, the small map gives us a glimpse into how the Babylonians viewed the world around them, both physically and spiritually.
The tablet contains a map of the Mesopotamian world, with Babylon in the center. It contains carefully etched images and cuneiform writing. Babylon is surrounded by two concentric circles that represent the ocean, named 'bitter water' or the 'salt sea'. It is labeled with Babylon, Assyria, and Elam. Eight triangular areas labeled as 'Regions' or 'Islands' surround the Salt Sea, and are labeled with distances, descriptions of the regions, and descriptions of great heroes and mythical beasts that lived in each region. The southern marshes are indicated at the bottom of the map by two parallel lines, and a curved line near the top shows the Zagros Mountains. The Euphrates River is shown running from the mountains above, through Babylon, to the marshes below. Within the center of the map are seven labelled areas that appear to represent cities. Due to damage of the tablet, it appears that three islands are missing from the lower corner."
Read more (and © above text): www.ancient-origins.net
  © image: Creative Commons the British Museum

"The Babylonian Map of the World, Imago Mundi (c. 500 BC) is a diagrammatic labeled depiction of the known world from the perspective of Babylonia. The map is incised on a clay tablet, showing Babylon somewhat to the north of its center; the clay tablet is damaged, and also contains a section of cuneiform text.
It is usually dated to the 5th century BC. It was discovered at Sippar, southern Iraq, 60 miles (97 km) north of Babylon on the east bank of the Euphrates River, and published in 1899. The clay tablet resides at the British Museum (BM 92687).
It is conjectured that the island locations, though possibly referring to real areas, may also represent a mythological interpretation of the world.
Carlo Zaccagnini has argued that the Babylonian map of the world may have lived on in the T and O map of the European Middle Ages."
  ©: www.ancient-wisdom.com
more on this and other maps: www.gutenberg.org
tags: #babylonian world map #clay tablet #British Museum

023  Arab culture -'Where the Two Seas Meet'

'Where the Two Seas Meet' "The place where the two seas meet is the locus of the mystical journey, "where the dead fish becomes alive", where spiritual teachings become a living substance that nourishes the wayfarer. When we meet our teacher, when we meet our path, this is what happens; something becomes alive within our heart and soul: we become nourished not by spiritual texts or teaching, but by direct transmission. The spiritual journey is a way to live with this spiritual substance, to be burned by its fire, to be consumed by its love."
- Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, 'Where the Two Seas Meet': A Sufi master's reflections on the divine and the human, Parabola Magazine, Spring 2012, 'Burning World.'

As we say whenever Hazrat al-Khezr's name is mentioned, "as-salaam aliekum", Blessing to the enigmatic and immortal Green Saint.
  ©: Illustration of the Sufi Saint Khidr (the Green One) Wearing A Green Robe and Standing on a Fish that carries him over Water, circa 1700. Public Domain
tags: #'Where the Two Seas Meet' #arab culture

023a  Arab culture -'The Drowning of the Chinese Beauty'

The Drowning of the Chinese Beauty - Mishkin A folio from the Aiyar-e-Danish (A Book of Animal Fables)
Mughal, Reign of Akbar, 1596-7
Painter: MISHKIN, size: 24.8 x 13.9 cm., Bharat Kala Bhavan, (Varanasi, India) No. 9065/22
"This startling miniature, one of the finest from the brush of the well-known master Mishkin, illustrates the story of the King of Baghdad getting rid of a beautiful Chinese damsel by drowning her in the waters of the Tigris. It was necessary for him to do this in order to overcome his mad infatuation for her so that he could fulfill the greater need of his distressed subjects who he had been badly neglecting. Mishkin has captured the dramatic moment when the king himself undertook this terrible task as earlier attempts to eliminate her were unsuccessful."
  ©: PD; description: Alok Kumar Das; miniature from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi India

tags: #BHU #Mishkin #mniature painting #Baghdad

024  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark - mughal miniature "Noah, his head surrounded by a flaming halo, sits at the center of this painting. A popular figure in the Koran, Noah (in Arabic, Nuh) also figures in poetic texts such as the Diwan (Collected Poems) by Hafiz.
Miskin, one of the greatest painters in the workshop of the Mughal emperor Akbar (r. 1556-1605) is thought to have painted this page. An expert draftsman and colorist, Miskin was best known for his skilled and whimsical depictions of animals and birds."
A Mughal miniature of Noah's Ark in the collection of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

"Commanding Prophet Noah to warn his people, God said: "Warn your people before there comes upon them a grievous penalty." - Holy Qur'an, 57:61 Obeying the command of God, Prophet Noah went to his people and said: "I have come to you with a clear warning that you worship none but God. Verily I fear for you the penalty of a grievous day." - Holy Qur'an, 11:25-26
  ©: text: simerg.com By Jehangir A. Merchant
  ©: image: PD(India); Description: Noah's Ark ca. 1590, Miskin Mughal dynasty Akbar(r. 1556 - 1605), Color and gold on paper H: 28.1 W: 15.6 cm India Source: www.asia.si.edu
tags: #noah's ark

024a  Arab culture -Noah's Ark and Floods

Noah's ark and floods "Le Livre des hystoires du Mirouer du monde, depuis la création, jusqu'après la dictature de Quintus Cincinnatus Date d'édition: 1401-1500 Type: manuscrit Langue: Français Identifiant: ark:/12148/btv1b52000962r"  Pinterest
  ©: PD, gallica.bnf.fr

Here is a link with many interesting stories about flood from all around the world. The image is not necessarily related to the following text:
"Zeus sent a flood to destroy the men of the Bronze Age. Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha (daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora), after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus, the God of Escape. At the bidding of Zeus, he threw stones over his head; they became men, and the stones which Pyrrha threw became women. That is why people are called laoi, from laas, "a stone."
  ©: www.talkorigins.org
tags: #noah's arc #flood

ref. # 024b  Arab culture -NOAH, the movie

Noah, the movie A man is chosen by his world's creator to undertake a momentous mission before an apocalyptic flood cleanses the world. Writers: Darren Aronofsky, Ari Handel. Stars: Russell Crowe, Jennifer Connelly, Anthony Hopkins
  ©:
tags: #noah

ref. # 024c  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark - the movie scene from the movie
  ©:
tags: #noah's arc

ref. # 024d  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark - the facts Floating Facts
According to Genesis, the Ark was 450 x 75ft and 45ft high - that is taller than a three-storey building and with a deck area the size of 36 tennis courts. A replica of the Ark is being built at Frostburg, Maryland. Work began 30 years ago.
Christians argue that Noah needed 40,000 animals to represent every kind of creature. sceptics say Noah would have needed room for at least 1.5 million species. The story may be based on an earlier, and very similar, Babylonian flood tale from the epic of Gilgamesh.
Noah, or Nuh, is one of the main prophets of Islam. In the Koran his wife is said to drown in the flood.
planet.infowars.com with many links!!

Noah Builds an Altar
20 Then Noah built an altar to the LORD, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
21 The LORD smelled the soothing aroma; and the LORD said to Himself, "I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man's heart is evil from his youth; and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done.
22 "While the earth remains, Seedtime and harvest, And cold and heat, And summer and winter, And day and night Shall not cease."
  ©:
tags: #noah's ark

ref. # 024e  Arab culture -Noah's Ark (steampunk)

  ©: 'wallpaper' www.wall321.com
tags: #noah ark #steampunk #wallpaper

ref. # 024f  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

When you know more about this artwork, please let me know (robert@WATER-artproject.com)

  ©: unknown (yet)
tags: #Noah #Arc

ref. # 024g  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark in Islam MOUNT ARARAT
The highest mount in Anatolia is Mount Ararat, called A&gcedil;ri Da&gcedil;i in Turkish, a volcano that culminates at 5,165 m/ 16,945 ft and whose summit is always capped with snow. The last eruption dates back to June 20, 1840. Many expeditions took place, some of which aiming to find the remains of Noah's Ark that is thought to have landed there after the Deluge.
www.guide-martine.com
  ©: unknown
tags: #arab culture #noah's ark

ref. # 024h  Arab culture -Secrets of Noah's Ark

A team attempts to build the flood boat using inscriptions from an ancient clay tablet
"Program Description:
In 1948, a British pilot serving in Iraq acquired a clay tablet with an intriguing, 3,700 year-old inscription. The ancient writing tells the story of how the god Enki warns a Sumerian king named Atra-Hasis of a future flood that will destroy mankind; Enki gives him instructions for building a boat to save his family and livestock. If that sounds like a familiar tale, it's because this was one of several ancient flood traditions that, centuries later, would inspire the biblical story of Noah. But the tablet's inscription describes a boat very different from the traditional image of the Ark -it's said to be circular and made of reeds. Is this nothing more than a fanciful myth? Or could such a reed boat have carried Atra-Hasis' family of more than one hundred and his many animals? Join NOVA as a team of historians and expert boat builders investigates this fascinating flood legend and sets out to rebuild a tantalizing, ancient forerunner of the Ark"
  ©: unknown (yet)
tags: noah's ark

ref. # 024i  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark - BNF Bibliothéque nationale de France, Français 28. f. 66v (Noah's ark). St Augustine, De civitate dei. Rouen, 3rd quarter of the 15th century.
  ©: BNF; via: Tumblr
tags: noah's ark

ref. # 024j  Arab culture -Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark - Bodleian Library "A page from a Book of Hours produced in Normandy in the mid 15th century, probably for export to England, with work by an artist known as the Master of Sir John Fastolf. The book may have had a royal owner. The page is heavily decorated with a floral border in bright colours. The image of the ark floating on water is above several lines of a prayer, in French and Latin, asking for 'peace in our time'. The image of Noah and his family in the ark (a simple wooden structure) is rather simple, as is the benign figure of God the Father who watches over the scene from the top of the page, above a rainbow. There is no sign of animals in the ark."
Manuscript 15th century, Bodleian Library, Oxford (Ms Auct D, fol 59v)
  ©: BNF; via: www.english.cam.ac.uk
tags: noah's ark #Bodleian Library

ref. # 025  Arab culture -

  ©:
tags:  #arab culture

ref. # 025a  Arab culture -Dhow Ports in the Indian Ocean.

Dhow Ports in the Indian Ocean In the time Ibn Battuta 028b lived (14th century), Muslim traders had firm control over the western half of the Indian Ocean trading centers. It was like "a Muslim lake" around which Muslim merchants had started businesses and they depended on trade by ship. Muslim communities had developed along the coast of Africa and later would develop along the coasts of India and Southeast Asia. A place in the business community was open to any young man with brains and ambition - whatever his racial background - íf he was a Muslim.
  ©: ibnbattuta.berkeley.edu
tags: #indian ocean #dhow

ref. # 025b  Arab culture -Astrolabe

Astrolabe A royal brass astrolabe, one of two known pieces, made by al-Ahmar al-Nujumi al-Rumi for the treasury of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (r.1481-1512), Turkey, dated 911 AH/1505-6 AD; comprising a mater with a double loop for suspension, three discs and an alidade, with incised details, the reverse-with two calligraphic roundels, the pin modern, 9.5cm. diam.

  ©: www.sothebys.com

tags: #astrolabe, #sothebys #navigation

ref. # 025c  Arab culture - map of Mali

"14th century map showing MANSA MUSA reigning in Mali", reportedly the richest man EVER.
  ©: www.mufudza.com

tags: #mansa musa

025d  Arab culture -´Sea Serpent swallows the Royal Fleet´

Aga Khan Museum -Sea Serpent swallows the Royal fleet "Folio From The Khawass Al-Ashjar (de Materia Medica): Rasiyun, Iran, 13th century CE
A giant sea serpent constricts its gold coils around a royal fleet, its full mouth leaving no doubt as to its intentions toward the remaining vessels. As if the carnivorous serpent were not enough, the alternative is a scary sea filled with demon-headed fish, giant crabs, and turtles, as well as a mermaid and merman. Most of the sailors appear to pray with upturned hands for deliverance from this nightmare. The painting has been identified as an illustration from the Gulshan-i 'Ishq (Rose Garden of Love) a heroic epic written in Deccani Urdu by the court poet Nusrati for Sultan 'Ali II ibn Muhammad 'Adil Shahi (r. 1656-72 CE) (Falk 1985, p. 174). The 'Adil-Shahis were great patrons of the arts and ruled Deccani Bijapur as an independent Shia kingdom from 1489 CE until it became part of the Mughal Empire in 1689 CE. It has been suggested that this painting was produced for an aristocrat at the end of Sultan 'Ali´s reign or during the reign of his successor, Sikandar ´Ali Shah (r. 1672-86 CE) (Welch and Welch 1982, p. 229). The theme of disaster at sea in this painting may be compared with similar episodes in the Hamzanama as part of the picaresque genre of adventure-romances, featuring heroes who travel through strange lands and meet with danger on land and sea."
Place: Bijapur, Deccan, India Dimensions: 39x23.5 cm Date: 1670 Materials and Technique: Opaque watercolour, paper
  ©: www.agakhanmuseum.org (encouraged to share via FB)
tags:  #Aga Khan Museum

ref. # 026  African seafarers -Influences

African seafarers "Another factor was the centuries long conflict between the Iberians and the Muslims to the south. The eastern trade routes were controlled by the Ottoman Empire after the Turks took control of Constantinople in 1453, and they barred Europeans from those trade routes. The ability to outflank the Muslim states of North Africa was seen as crucial to their survival. At the same time, the Iberians learnt much from their Arab neighbours. The carrack and caravel both incorporated the Mediterranean lateen sail that made ships far more manoeuvrable. It was also through the Arabs that Ancient Greek geography was rediscovered, for the first time giving European sailors some idea of the shape of Africa and Asia."
  ©text: us.wow.com

  © map: ...
tags: #map #africa #African seafarers

ref. # 026a  African seafarers -Carthago Nova

Carthago Nova Conquest of Carthago Nova (Cartagena - Spain) by Romans during the 2nd Punic War between Carthage and Rome 210 BC (Pieter Furnius, 16th century, Library of the University of Leiden (NL))
  ©: www.ancient.eu
tags: #Phoenicia #cartagena #chartago nova

026b  African seafarers -Phoenicia

Phoenician ship Carved on the face of a sarcophagus. 2nd century AD. Phoenician ship Carved on the face of a sarcophagus. 2nd century AD.
  ©: CC en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Lebanon#Phoenicia
tags: #Phoenicia

ref. # 026c  African seafarers -anatomy of a Punt schip

anatomy of a Punt ship (interactive presentation of) anatomy of an Egyptian Punt ship
"When researchers set out to create a full-size reconstruction of a pharaonic sailing vessel, as seen in NOVA's 'Building Pharaoh's Ship', they had to rediscover some of the basics of New Kingdom engineering. In this interactive, explore different parts of the ship that its recreators dubbed Min of the Desert."
  ©: www.pbs.org
tags: #punt ship #egypt

026d  African seafarers -Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat

Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat Tomb of Menna, scribe of the king, scene: funeral procession to Abydos, a similar funerary boat is believed to have carried the body of Menna and his wife to Abydos, the place consecrated to the god Osiris. Date: circa 1422-1411 BCE. Mural, 43 × 73 cm (16.9 × 28.7 in). Current location: Tomb of Menna, Thebe
  ©: via Wikimedia, The Yorck Project: '10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei'. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by Directmedia Pub.
tags: #Egypt #Menna #riverboat

026e  African seafarers -Somalia

"In antiquity, the ancestors of the Somali people were an important link in the Horn of Africa connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense, myrrh and spices, items which were considered valuable luxuries by the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Mycenaeans and Babylonians. During the classical era, several ancient city-states such as Opone, Mosylon and Malao that competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the wealthy Indo-Greco-Roman trade also flourished in Somalia. In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, the latter of which maintained profitable maritime contacts with Arabia, India, Venetia, Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China. This tradition of seaborne trade was maintained in the early modern period by later Somali states such as the Gobroon Dynasty."
  ©: maritime history of Somalia (Wikipedia)
tags: #Somalia#East Coast Africa

ref. # 027  African seafarers -Olmec

Olmec head Gigantic stone head of Negritic African during the Olmec (Xi) Civilization By Paul Barton
Negritic African: The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas. According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India. essaysbyekowa.com
  ©: Paul Barton
tags:  #Olmec #Paul Barton #stone heads

027a   African seafarers -Cave paintings in the Sahara

mermaids in the Sahara The remote Cave of Swimmers is located at Wadi Sura in the mountainous Gilf Kebir plateau of the Sahara, in southwest Egypt near the Libyan border. Wadi Sora itself is a sheltered inlet within a promontory of the main plateau. The main painted caves were discovered by the Hungarian explorer LászlO Almásy in October 1933 during the Frobenius expedition. They contain the diminuitive but defined 'swimming figures. www.bradshawfoundation.com

link: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_of_Swimmers
www.britishmuseum.org

  ©:
tags: #Gilf Kebir #sahara #mermaids

ref. # 027b  African seafarers -Wadi al-Hitan (Whale Valley)

Wadi al-Hitan Whale Valley "Wadi Al-Hitan, Whale Valley, in the Western Desert of Egypt, contains invaluable fossil remains of the earliest, and now extinct, suborder of whales, Archaeoceti. These fossils represent one of the major stories of evolution: the emergence of the whale as an ocean-going mammal from a previous life as a land-based animal. This is the most important site in the world for the demonstration of this stage of evolution. It portrays vividly the form and life of these whales during their transition. The number, concentration and quality of such fossils here is unique, as is their accessibility and setting in an attractive and protected landscape. The fossils of Al-Hitan show the youngest archaeocetes, in the last stages of losing their hind limbs. Other fossil material in the site makes it possible to reconstruct the surrounding environmental and ecological conditions of the time." UNESCO World Heritage Site

picture:: Dorudon atrox bones at Wadi al-Hitan. This fossil skeleton, around 50 million years old, has been partially excavated and reassembled where found in Wadi Al-Hitan. Dozens of whale skeletons remain undisturbed on the floor of the valley, usually indicated by small mounds created as wind erosion uncovered them.
  ©: Creative Commons Wikipedia
tags: #Wadi al-Hitan #whales

028  African seafarers -Hanno

Hanno - African seafarers via Greg Mel - Pinterest
"Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his naval exploration of the western coast of Africa. The only source of his voyage is a Greek periplus.
"Carthage dispatched Hanno at the head of a fleet of 60 ships to explore and colonize the northwestern coast of Africa. He sailed through the straits of Gibraltar, founded or repopulated seven colonies along the African coast of what is now Morocco, and explored significantly farther along the Atlantic coast of the continent. Hanno encountered various indigenous peoples on his journey and met with a variety of welcomes.
At the terminus of Hanno's voyage, the explorer found an island heavily populated with what were described as hirsute and savage people. Attempts to capture the males failed, but three of the females were taken. These were so ferocious that they were killed, and their skins preserved for transport home to Carthage. The skins were kept in the Temple of Tannit on Hanno's return and, according to Pliny the Elder, survived until the Roman destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, some 350 years after Hanno's expedition. The interpreters travelling with Hanno called the people gorillae, and when European explorers first encountered gorillas in the 19th century, the apes were given this name on the assumption that they were the "people" Hanno described"
(Wikipedia)

  ©: loads of beautiful pictures of Fenicians  www.pinterest.com
tags: #Hanno
TIMELINE

ref. # 028a  African seafarers -Himilco

Himilco - African seafarers "Himilco, 5th century BC
Himilco is the first known explorer from the Mediterranean Sea to reach the northwestern shores of Europe. His lost account of his adventures is quoted by Roman writers. The oldest reference to Himilco's voyage is a brief mention in Natural History (2.169a). by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder.[2] Himilco was quoted three times by Rufus Festus Avienus, who wrote Ora Maritima, a poetical account of the geography in the 4th century AD." "Carthaginian voyager, 5th century BC., the first known sailor from the Mediterranean to reach the northwestern shores of Europe. He wrote a story about his adventures, which is now lost. It is quoted, however, by Roman authors, and we are therefore able to reconstruct his travels. The name 'Himilco' is Latin; it renders the Phoenician name Chimilkât, which means 'my brother is milkât' - but it is unclear to us what a milkât was. Read more: Himilco, Phoenician Voyager to Northwestern Shores of Europe.
The oldest available source on Himilco's voyage is Natural history by the Roman scientist Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.). He writes: "When the power of Carthage flourished, Hanno sailed round from Cádiz to the extremity of Arabia, and published a memoir of his voyage of his voyage, as did Himilco when he was dispatched at the same date to explore the outer coasts of Europe." (Pliny the Elder, Natural history 2.169a)"
  © Picture:   Reproduced by kind courtesy © Jona Lendering for Livius.Org
text: phoenicia.org
tags: #himilco #carthago
TIMELINE

ref. # 028b  Arab culture -Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta Was born in 1304 Tangier, Morocco. Over the years he traveled around Africa, India and China.
Ibn Battutah, or simply Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 25, 1304 - 1368 or 1369), was an explorer of Berber descent, who is widely recognised as one of the greatest travelers of all time. He is known for his extensive travels, accounts of which were published in the ´Rihla´ (lit. ´Journey´). Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands. His journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa and Eastern Europe, and to the Middle East 025a, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China.
  ©: ibnbattutalife.blogspot.nl/
Wikipedia, more: ibnbattuta.berkeley.edu
tags:  #Ibn Battuta #arab culture

ref. # 030  passing Lüderitz -Diogo Cão

Diogo Cao padrao Here, in 1485, the Portuguese captain and navigator Diogo Cão landed. He was the first European to set foot in Namibia, indeed, the first European of his time to reach this far south down the coast of Africa. To mark the achievement he erected a stone cross on the bleak headland. It was a 2 metre high, 360kg commemorative stone, or padrão, (a tribute to João II) at Cape Cross in honour of King John I of Portugal. It was inscribed in Latin and Portuguese with:
"Since the creation of the world 6684 years have passed and since the birth of Christ 1484 years and so the illustrious Don John has ordered this pillar to be erected here by Diogo Cão, his knight."
alfakom.se/specks/padrao.htm
link: www.pinterest.com/WATERartproject/2014-passing-lüderitz/
  ©:
tags: #Luderitz #Diogo Cao
TIMELINE

ref. # 030a  passing Lüderitz -Bartolomeu Dias

Bartolomeu Dias, painting by Carlos Alberto Santos Bartolomeu Dias no Cabo. 1997
Publicada por nonas á(s) 2.7.12

In December 1487 Dias sailed down the African coast, landing in among other places present-day Angola and Walvis Bay, Namibia. During this voyage, strong winds forced him to sail over a thousand kilometers off-course, and thus he sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa. He named the Cape "the Cape of Storms" (Cabo das Tormentas), but King John II of Portugal later renamed it Cabo de Boa Esperanca (Cape of Good Hope)."

Carlos Alberto SANTOS, painter, produced the Exhibition ´Vasco da Gama and the Discovery of the Oceans´ during the 16th Music Festival in Leiria, with the sponsoring of the Gallery Capitel and its owner, Joaquim Vieira. "If something exists - beyond love and friendship - that can give a meaning to life, it is the beauty of art.", in the words of Riemen.
YouTube
  ©: Pintura do Mestre Carlos Alberto Santos
tags: #Bartolomeu Dias #Arte, #Carlos Alberto Santos #Cultura #Història de Portugal #Pintura

030b  passing Lüderitz -Namibia in territories

Namibia divided in territories Namibia divided in territories
  ©: photo Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Namibia #territories

ref. # 030c  passing Lüderitz -Land grabbing

land grabbing ´land grabbing´ (´landjepik´ in dutch ..)

the German missionary Hermann Heinrich KREFT found diamonds near Lüderitz in 1855. He threw them away. When asked why, he answered: "What should I do with diamonds? They only bring tragedy to a country"

Adolf Eduard LÜDERITZ 'The scramble to colonize Africa'.
www.namibia-1on1.com

  ©:
tags: #namibia #hermann heinrich kreft

030d  passing Lüderitz -Hereros

Herero massacre Group portrait of Hereros: survivors after an escape through the desert of Omaheke in 1905
Photographer: O. ZIEGLER. Views of German Southwest Africa. 1907-08

The Herero and Namaqua Genocide is considered to have been the first genocide of the 20th century. It took place between 1904 and 1907 in German South-West Africa (modern day Namibia), during the Herero Wars.
On 12 January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero, rebelled against German colonial rule. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans only to suffer a similar fate.
In total, from 24,000 up to 100,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama died.The genocide was characterised by widespread death from starvation and thirst because the Herero who fled the violence were prevented from leaving the Namib Desert.
In 1985, the United Nations' Whitaker Report classified the aftermath as an attempt to exterminate the Herero and Nama peoples of South-West Africa, and therefore one of the earliest attempts at genocide in the 20th century. The German government recognised and apologised for the events in 2004, but has ruled out financial compensation for the victims' descendants. (Wikipedia).
From the Oranjemund river up to Lüderitz the coast is called "Sperrgebiet" -Forbidden Coast, because this is where the diamond mines are. The Sperrgebiet boundary is patrolled by some fairly ruthless characters and tresspassers will be prosecutes (Lonely Planet publications)
Some people never learn, do they?

link: www.liveauctioneers.com
and read more here: kora.matrix.msu.edu (.pdf file)

  © Wikimedia Commons
tags: #namibia #genocide #herero

030e  passing Lüderitz -Eugen Fischer

Eugen Fischer experiments on humans Geneticist Eugen Fischer came to German South West Africa on behalf of German universities as soon as the death camps (Shark Island) opened. Fischer´s ´race science´ theories led to the idea of a ´supreme race´ which not only severely influenced the Second Reich, but also the Third.
read on www.ezakwantu.com

  ©: Public domain
tags: #eugen fischer #herero #namibia #genocide

031  Flying Dutchman -the ´Flying Dutchman´

The Flying Dutchman - From An Old German Print.
link: www.john-howe.com  from his very interesting blog about  'flying ships'
  ©: unknown
tags: #flying dutchman

ref. # 031a  Flying Dutchman -'the Flying Dutchman'

completed by 1887 Albert Pinkham Ryder Born: New Bedford, Massachusetts 1847 Died: New York, New York 1917
oil on canvas mounted on fiberboard 14 1/4 x 17 1/4 in. (36.1 x 43.8 cm.) Smithsonian American Art Museum
  ©: americanart.si.edu
tags: #Flying Dutchman #Albert Pinkham Ryder

ref. # 031b  Flying Dutchman -the 'Flying Dutchman' Stanislav Plutenko

"White-sailed amain, till lost from view.
Cloud chases cloud across the blue
And shadow ships the race renew
In shadowland"
Excerpt from "Shadowland" by P. Morgan Watkins, Pall Mall Magazine, vol. V, January 1895
via: www.john-howe.com

  © painting: Stanislav Plutenko
tags: #Stanislav Plutenko #Flying Dutchman #Pall Mall Magazine #P. Morgan Watkins

031c  Flying Dutchman -the ´Flying Dutchman´

the Flying Dutchman 'El Holandès Errante' by Hans Printz (1913)
  ©: PD
tags: #flying dutchman; #el holandes errante

ref. # 031d  Flying Dutchman -the ´Flying Dutchman´

When you know more about this artwork, please let me know (robertschilder&gmail.com)
  ©: source unknown

Here's another interesting link: hubpages.com
tags: #flying dutchman

ref. # 032  Flying Dutchman -KLM and the ´Flying Dutchman´

poster KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) 'de Vliegende Hollander', 'the Flying Dutchman'

NB: There is no obvious link between an airline company and a condemned captain other than the title "Flying Dutchman" ..
  ©: KLM
tags: #KLM #Vliegende Hollander #Flying Dutchman

ref. # 032a  Flying Dutchman -Wagner's Opera 'the Flying Dutchman'

"As a result of his mounting debts, Wagner's passport had been confiscated in Riga and so it was necessary that he be smuggled across the border to Konigsberg where they set sail for France. A journey that should have taken eight days, due to foul weather eventually took three and a half weeks ..."
to read more follow this link: www.wagner-tuba.com
link: http://vzls.net/1IXViGX
  ©:
tags: #Richard Wagner #Flying Dutchman #opera

ref. # 033  South Africa - gravure bay Cape of Good Hope

Kaap de Goede Hoop H. Kobell jr. - Kopergravure. Afbeelding van de rede van Kaap de Goede Hoop
  ©: www.pinterest.com/WATERartproject/2014-simons-town/
tags: #Cape of Good hope #Kaap de Goede Hoop #Zuid afrika #H.Kobell #Bartolomeu Dias

"It was not without good reason that this promontory received the name Cabo da Boa Esperanca because Bartolomeu Dias, who discovered it at the command of the late King João in the year 1488, saw that the coast here turned northwards and north-eastwards towards Ethiopia-under-Egypt and on to the gulf of Arabia, which gave indication and expectation of the discovery of India, and for this reason gave it the name of Cabo da Boa Esperanca."
text: www.sahistory.org.za

033a  South Africa -Sarah Baartman

Sarah Baartman Displaying Sara Baartman, the ´Hottentot Venus´
Sadiah Qureshi
Christ´s College, Cambridge
Saartjie "Sarah" Baartman (before 1790 - 29 December 1815) was the most famous of at least two Khoikhoi women who, due to their large buttocks (steatopygia), were exhibited as human zoo attractions in 19th-century Europe under name Hottentot Venus. ´Hottentot´ was the then current name for the Khoi people, now considered an offensive term, and "Venus" in reference to the Roman goddess of love.
  ©:http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.nl/2013/06/the-khoikhoi-hottentots-first-people-of.html
wikipedia
tags: #Saartje Baartman #Hottentot #South Africa #KhoiKhoi

ref. # 033b  South Africa -´Table Bay´

Aernout Smit Table Bay, 1683 William Fehr Collection Cape Town Aernout Smit ´Table Bay´, 1683
  ©: William Fehr Collection
tags: #Aernout Smit #Table Bay

034  South Africa -The Landing of Jan van Riebeeck

The Landing of Jan van Riebeeck (1619-77), the Dutch in Cape Of Good Hope, South Africa on 6th April 1652. The Khoikhoi (Hottentots) in the painting were the first Africans to meet them.
painting by Charles BELL (1813-1882)
  ©: kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.nl
www.sahistory.org.za
link: Jan van Riebeeck Journal
'The first slaves at the Cape ...' www.sahistory.org.za
tags: #Jan van Riebeeck #Khoikhoi #Cape of Good Hope

034a  South Africa - Khoikhoi "Betty'

Artist Prince Roland Napoleon BONAPARTE (French, 1858 - 1924) (1858 - 1924) (French) (photographer, Details of artist on Google Art Project) Title: Betty, fillette hotentotte (Hottentot girl), 9 ans. Date: about 1890, albumen silver print, 171 x 114 mm, collection of The J. Paul Getty Museum
photographer: Prince Roland Napoleon Bonaparte (French - Betty, fillette hotentotte (Hottentot girl), 9 ans. - Google Art Project
Khoikhoi Wikipedia, Roland Bonaparte Wikipedia
  ©: Creative Commons Wikipedia
tags: #Prince Roland Napoleon Bonaparte #Hottentotte #Khoikhoi #Cape of Good Hope #Cape Town #South Africa

034b  South Africa - ´Habits of the Hottentots´, Men & Woman

hottentots link: www.oocities.org
  ©:  unknown
tags: #hottentots #khoikhoi #South africa

034c  South Africa - Xhosa students 1860

Xsosa students 1960 Xhosa students at Zonnebloem college in Cape Town, Cape Colony. From an old Cape Archives photo
  ©: Public Domain South Africa
tags: #Xhosa #Zonnebloem College #Cape Town Colony #South Africa

ref. # 035  East Coast of Africa -'Afrique selon les Relations les plus Nouvelles'

Afrique selon les Relations les plus Nouvelles Map: 'Afrique selon les Relations les plus Nouvelles', dressée et dediée Par le. P. CORONELLI (1689).

"The East African seaboard, stretching some 1,250 miles from Somalia in the north to Madagascar and Mozambique in the south, was a culturally dynamic region throughout the historical period. Traditionally known as the Swahili Coast, the maritime zone extends a mere nine miles inland.
The Swahili cultural identity originated during the middle of the first millennium A.D., following the consolidation of earlier farming and metal-using Bantu-speaking communities along the coast and the emergence of a distinctive maritime orientation.
Previous research has produced evidence of long distance exchange networks that linked parts of this coast with the Classical world by at least the B.C./A.D. transition. By the end of the first millennium A.D., this trade had grown to include China, India and the Arabian Peninsula.
About this time, a series of autonomous coastal towns were established, and by the 13th century, their functions included controlling and managing trade and communications along the eastern seaboard of Africa. European influence arrived in the 16th century when the Portuguese established fortified port towns along the coast. The Omani Arabs arrived in the late seventeenth century and dominated the coastline for 150 years."
text: www.pbs.org
  ©: image: Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps

See also: Mao Kun map, generally referred to by Chinese people as Zheng He's Navigation Map is a set of navigation charts published in the Ming dynasty military treatise Wubei Zhi.
tags: #maps #East Africa

035a  East Coast of Africa -'la Balsa de la Méduse'

la Balsa de la Médusa Jean Louis Théodore GÈRICAULT - 'La Balsa de la Medusa' (Museo del Louvre, 1818-19)
"Ce tableau, de trés grande dimension (491 cm de hauteur et 716 cm de largeur), reprèsente un èpisode tragique de l´histoire de la marine française : le naufrage de la frègate Mèduse, qui s´èchoue sur un banc de sable au large des côtes de l´actuelle Mauritanie, le 2 juillet 1816. Au moins 147 personnes se maintiennent á la surface de l´eau sur un radeau de fortune et seuls quinze embarquent le 17 juillet á bord de L´Argus, un bateau venu les secourir. Cinq personnes meurent peu aprés leur arrivèe á Saint-Louis du Sènègal, aprés avoir endurè la faim, la dèshydratation, la folie et même le cannibalisme. L´èvènement devient un scandale d´ampleur internationale, en partie car un capitaine français servant la monarchie restaurèe depuis peu est jugè responsable du dèsastre, en raison de son incompètence."

  ©: PD more info on: Wikipedia
tags: #Gericault #multi media presentation

036  VOC -'Dutch ships in the roadstead of Texel (the 'Gouden Leeuw' of Cornelis Tromp in the center'

Dutch ships in the roadstead of Texel (the Gouden Leeuw of Cornelis Tromp in the center "The Dutch West Indies Company (West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) started as a company of privateers. Its ships attacked enemy vessels and stole cargos, or indeed the entire craft. This was authorised by the States General as part of the war against Spain, and letters of marque sanctioning these attacks were issued to the WIC. Later, the WIC developed into a trading monopoly organising commerce with North and South America".
  ©: text: www.rijksmuseum.nl

  ©: painting 'Dutch ships in the roadstead of Texel (the 'Gouden Leeuw' of Cornelis Tromp in the center', Ludolf Backhuysen, (1671) 92x140 cm. Wikimedia Commons, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

tags: #Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. #Ludolf Bakhuizen, #Golden Lion

036a  VOC -'Apotheosis of the Dutch East India Company'

Apotheosis of the Dutch East India Company Apotheosis of the Dutch East India Company (Allegory of the Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce of the VOC), Nicolaas VERKOLJE, 1702 - 1746
"Founded in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC) flourished and survived for two centuries. The company, a combination of commercial organisations in various cities of Holland and Zeeland, traded both in Asia and between Asia and Europe. It was the first public company to issue negotiable shares and it developed into one of the biggest and most powerful trading and shipping concerns. The VOC ran its own shipyards, the largest being in Amsterdam. This spectacular trade with Asia made the Dutch Republic the world's key commercial hub."
  ©: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
tags: #VOC, #Verkolje,

ref. # 036b  VOC -

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 036c  VOC -

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 037a  china -Star Chart

Star Chart Ink rubbing of a stele at the Confucian Temple, Suzhou, Jiangsu province
Southern Song dynasty, Chunyou reign, dated 1247
Hanging scroll; ink on paper
183 x 100 cm
  ©: Stone Carving Museum, Suzhou; the Art Institute of Chicago
tags:  #star chart

ref. # 037b  china -Zhen Kuo

Shen Kuo (1031-1095) was a noted Chinese scientist, a general and a public official. Shen wrote the first description of a magnetic compass; he had discovered true north centuries before Christians or Muslims did. He was the first man in China to write of both retrograde motion and atmospheric refraction. He was the first there to use a camera obscura as well; he did the earliest known complex optical experiments in the world with one. He used a sighting tube that he had built to make the first accurate map in his native land of the Pole star in more than 600 years. He was the first man in China to say that the Sun, the Moon, and the planets were all spheres. As with all in that realm, he thought that the Earth was flat.
  ©: http://www.nmspacemuseum.org/documents/CurationPaper1.pdf
tags: #Shen Kuo

ref. # 037c  china -Auguste François 'Port of Canton'

Canton - Auguste Francois á Canton: la rivière et le port vu de la rive droite du Quai Fati (Huadi) 1887
  ©: www.photographyofchina.com

tags: #Canton

ref. # 037d  china -Zheng He

Zheng He ZHENG He (1371-1433 or 1435), originally named Ma He, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty. Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. His larger ships stretched 400 feet in length (Columbus's Santa Maria was 85 feet). These carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks.
As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, he rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing (the capital was later moved to Beijing by the Yongle Emperor). These voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad since the publication of Liang Qichao's Biography of Our Homeland's Great Navigator, Zheng He in 1904. A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Sri Lanka shortly thereafter.
  ©: text: Wikipedia, painting: internet, source unknown
tags: #Zheng He

ref. # 037e  from China to Japan -Kozuka with Daruma

Kozuka with Daruma "Daruma (Sk. Bodhidharma) was an Indian Buddhist who lived in the 6th century. He is recognized as the founder of Zen Buddhism. Legends claim that he traveled to China and Japan. Here he is shown standing on a reed, which he used to cross the ocean from China to Japan. The artist's signature and seal are on the reverse."
Iwamoto KONKAN (Japanese, 1744-1801)
Period: 1744-1801 (Edo), Medium: shibuichi, gold (Arms & Armor), Accession number: 51.739, Measurements: 3 3/4 in. (9.5 cm) (l.), Geographies: Edo (present-day Tokyo, Japan) (Place of Origin),

  ©: CC   The Walters Art Museum
tags: #china #japan #religion

ref. # 038  japan -Sebastián Vizcaíno (Japanese 1842 drawing of a Dutch ship)

Japanese 1842 drawing of a Dutch ship Japanese relations
In 1611, Vizcaíno carried a Japanese delegation led by Tanaka Shõsuke from Mexico back to Japan. In an ambassadorial capacity, Vizcaíno met with the shõgun Tokugawa Hidetada and his father, the retired first shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder of the Tokugawa dynasty. However, diplomacy soured due to Vizcaíno's disregard of Japanese court etiquette. After taking his leave in 1612, he surveyed the east coast of Japan and searched for two mythical islands called Rico de Oro and Rico de Plata. Failing to find them, he returned to Japan.
In 1613, Vizcaíno accompanied the Japanese embassy led by Hasekura Tsunenaga to Mexico. In Acapulco, Vizcaíno was seriously injured in a fight with the Japanese, as recorded by 17th-century Aztec historian Chimalpahin in his journal, "Annals of His Time". The Japanese entourage continued to Mexico City and embarked a ship at Veracruz bound for Europe.
Dutch conflict
On November 11, 1616, Vizcaíno commanded 200 men at the port of Salagua against an attack by 200 Dutch pirates. In the afternoon, both sides ran out of ammunition. Vizcaíno's men retreated after the Dutch returned with more ammunition.
  ©:
tags: #Sebastian Vizcaino

038a  japan -Buddhist World Map

The first Buddhist world map printed in Japan and the prototype for all subsequent Buddhist world maps printed in Japan until the late nineteenth century. Made by Zuda Rokashi in 1710
"Hotan's map was revolutionary in being the first printed Oriental map to introduce detailed Western cartographic information into this traditional Buddhist cosmological view and to attempt to merge the two together into a comprehensible form. Europe is depicted as a series of islands in the upper left of the image, whilst South America is likewise another island in the lower right of the image. Africa is omitted completely. China and Japan are clearly defined in the upper right of the map. The popularity of the map is evidenced by the fact that although the map is dated 1710, it was reissued unchanged in numerous editions through to about 1815, and spawned innumerable copies and derivatives over the next 150 years. A rare and important cartographic work."
  ©:image: PD; text: (extensive information) www.abemaps.com
tags: #japan #buddhist #map

039  Ocean currents -Corrientes Oceanicas

"An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength.
Ocean currents flow for great distances, and together, create the global conveyor belt which plays a dominant role in determining the climate of many of the Earth´s regions. More specifically, ocean currents influence the temperature of the regions through which they travel. For example, warm currents traveling along more temperate coasts increase the temperature of the area by warming the sea breezes that blow over them. Perhaps the most striking example is the Gulf Stream, which makes northwest Europe much more temperate than any other region at the same latitude. Another example is Lima, Peru where the climate is cooler (sub-tropical) than the tropical latitudes in which the area is located, due to the effect of the Humboldt Current."

"Three main types of breaking waves:
- Spilling, or rolling. They can be found in most areas with relatively flat shorelines. They are the most common type of shorebreak
- Plunging, or dumping: these break suddenly and can "dump" swimmers -pushing them to the bottom with great force. These are the preferred waves for experienced surfers. Strong offshore winds and long wave periods can cause dumpers. They are often found where there is a sudden rise in the sea floor, such as a reef or sandbar.
- Surging: these may never actually break as they approach the water's edge, as the water below them is very deep. They tend to form on steep shorelines. These waves can knock swimmers over and drag them back into deeper water."
Wikipedia

  ©: PD Wikipedia
tags: #ocean currents #waves

039a  Ocean currents -Warm / Cold currents of the Oceans

  ©: PD, US Army
tags: #currents #oceans

040  Ocean waves -Katsushika Hokusai 'the Great Wave of Kanagawa'

Katsushika Hokusai 'the Great Wave of Kanagawa' 'The Great Wave off Kanagawa' (Kanagawa Oki Nami Ura, lit.'In the well of a wave off Kanagawa'), also known as 'The Great Wave' or simply 'The Wave', is a woodblock print (25.7 cm x 37.8 cm [10.1 in x 14.9 in]) by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It was published sometime between 1830 and 1833 in the late Edo period as the first print in Hokusai's series 'Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji' (Fugaku sanjurokkei). It is Hokusai's most famous work, and one of the best recognized works of Japanese art in the world. It depicts an enormous wave threatening boats off the coast of the prefecture of Kanagawa. As in all the prints in the series, it depicts the area around Mount Fuji under particular conditions, and the mountain itself appears in the background.
Copies of the print are in many Western collections, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the British Museum in London, the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne, and in Claude Monet's house in Giverny, France, amongst many other collections.
  ©: PD en.wikipedia.org
tags:  #Katsushika Hokusai #woodblock #Japan

040a  Ocean waves -Japanese magazine cover

Japanese magazine cover   ©: via blog.livedoor.jp
tags: #wave #japan

040b  Ocean waves -Gustave Courbet ´the Wave´

"Courbet was fascinated by the power of the sea. He spent the summer of 1869 at Etretat on the Normandy coast and painted several pictures of waves breaking on the shore. The small scale of his canvas did not inhibit his ability to convey the vast expanse of stormy sky and sea. Courbet applied paint thickly using vigorous brush and palette knife strokes which complement the forceful surge of the wave. The motif of the single wave was inspired by Japanese colour prints which were widely available in Paris in the 1860s."
  ©: text www.nationalgalleries.org

Gustave Courbet (French, 1819-1877). ´The Wave´ (´La Vague´), ca. 1869. Oil on canvas, 25 3/4 x 34 15/16 x 3in. (65.4 x 88.7 x 7.6cm). Brooklyn Museum
  © painting: www.brooklynmuseum.org
tags: #wave #courbet #brooklyn museum #national galleries

ref. # 040c -How deep is the ocean?

Nobody is interested in 'how deep is the ocean' by the meter and we all realise that 'how high is the sky' is unimaginable. but I bet a lot of scientists got interested by reading of Jules Verne's book '20.000 leagues under the Sea' when they were young.

How much do I love you, I'll tell you no lie
How deep is the ocean? How high is the sky?
How many times a day do I think of you?
How many roses are sprinkled with dew?

How far would I travel to be where you are?
How far is the journey from here to a star?
And if I ever lost you, how much would I cry?
How deep is the ocean? How high is the sky?

And if I ever lost you, how much would I cry?
How deep is the ocean? How high is the sky?
Songwriters: Ted Shapiro / Jimmy Campbell and Reg Connelly
Published by: Lyrics © EMI Music Publishing


Read more: Ella Fitzgerald - How Deep Is The Ocean Lyrics | MetroLyrics

"The world's deepest point in the oceans is the Challenger Deep which is found within the Marianas Trench. The Marianas Trench is a depression (deep cracks) in the floor of the western Pacific Ocean. Marianas Trench is formed (as other ocean trenches) as a result of the oceanic plate being pushed against a continental plate whereby causing the oceanic plate to pushed downward making deep fissure. Its location is east of the Mariana Islands and is 1,554 miles long and averages 44 miles wide (see diagrams below). The Marianas Trench depth is 36,200 feet (11,033 m or 11.03 km)."
tellmewhyfacts.com

"To Answer Science's Enduring Questions
We know less about the deepest points on our planet than we do about the surface of Mars. The DEEPSEA CHALLENGE team is dedicated to advancing the world's understanding of our ocean's vast range of biological and geological phenomena. The historic expedition to the Mariana Trench's lowest point, the Challenger Deep, which lies 6.83 miles (10.99 kilometers) below the ocean surface, was the first extensive scientific exploration in a manned submersible of the deepest spot on Earth. On March 26, 2012, James Cameron successfully piloted the DEEPSEA CHALLENGER-outfitted for scientific exploration-to the ocean's deepest point, where he collected samples and documented the experience in the high-resolution 3-D for which he's known globally."
www.deepseachallenge.com

  ©: wordlesstech.com
tags: #Ella Fitzgerald #Mariana Trench #Challenger deep #James Cameron #Deepsea Challenge

ref. # 041  Pollution - How to save our Oceans

water pollution   ©: photographer unknown
tags: #pollution

ref. # 041a  Pollution -Pacific Garbage Patch

Lies You have Been Told About the Pacific Garbage Patch Lies You´ve Been Told About the Pacific Garbage Patch
"You´ve probably heard of the Pacific garbage patch," also called the trash vortex. It´s a region of the North Pacific ocean where the northern jet stream and the southern trade winds, moving opposite directions, create a vast, gently circling region of water called the North Pacific Gyre - and at its center, there are tons of plastic garbage."
  ©: read the article: io9.com

tags: #North Pacific Gyre #pacific garbage patch
pinterest

ref. # 041b  Pollution -Acidification of Reefs

"If we continue to produce carbon dioxide at the current rate, future atmospheric carbon dioxide will be high enough to lower ocean surface pH to 7.8 by the year 2100 (Royal Society 2008). Scientists have done laboratory studies that suggest a pH about this low could dissolve coral skeletons and may cause reefs to fall apart (Fine and Tchernov 2006). If coral reefs are lost, vital habitat will be lost too. The future health of coral reefs and many marine organisms depends on our ability to reduce our carbon dioxide emissions on a global scale."
  ©: www.teachoceanscience.net

  © picture: Caribbean reefs with unhealthy corals, Guadeloupe, 2013 Photo: Catlin Seaview Survey
tags: #coral reefs #acidification

ref. # 041c  Pollution - World OCEAN Pollution Map

  ©:
tags: #pollution

ref. # 041d  Pollution - Ship Breakers

ship breakers There is an extensive article on Wikipedia
Offthebeach.org is a site dedicated to improving global shipbreaking practices
Since 2006, the NGO Shipbreaking Platform has advocated for the environmentally sound and safe dismantling of end-of-life ships "OFF THE BEACH". This site was launched in June 2013, to distinguish responsible shipowners that adopt clean & safe ship recycling policies and practices from those shipowners that continue to support harmful beach shipbreaking operations.
  ©: photograph: unknown

tags: #ship breakers #pollution #environment

041e  2015 travel journal -Waste Management -Cost of bottled water

infographic cost of bottled water Think before you drink: The environmental cost of bottled water
  ©: insinkerator.co.uk (with permission to publish)
tags: #waste #bottled water #environment #pollution

ref. # 042  Pollution - Ocean Cleanup

Ocean Cleanup August 23, 2015 - The Ocean Cleanup successfully concluded the Mega Expedition with the arrival of a first group of vessels including the fleet's 171ft mothership in the port of San Francisco today. Using a series of measurement techniques, including trawls and aerial surveys, the fleet of close to 30 vessels sampled the concentration of plastic during its month-long voyage through the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. This is in preparation for the large-scale cleanup of the area, set to begin in 2020. Read on! http://www.theoceancleanup.com

  ©:
tags: #the Ocean Cleanup #Pollution

042a  Pollution -Seawer skyscraper

Seawer Skyscraper "The Seawer is a self-supported hydroelectric power station that can generate electricity using seawater at the same time that it cleans up plastic waste. The huge structure separates plastic particles and fluids, recycles seawater and releases it back into the ocean. The structure receives energy from the sun, ocean and plastics and moves slowly from one polluted area to the next. The project received an honorable mention in the 2014 eVolo Skyscraper."   ©: www.plasticoceans.net/
tags: #Seawer Skyscraper #plastic oceans foundation


Read about more ideas: www.bluebird-electric.net

ref. # 042b  Pollution -Google Street View

Google´s new collection of Street View Imagery assembles underwater photos from over 40 locations. Google put the new images online to mark WORLD OCEANS DAY (www.worldoceansday.org) on 8 June, hoping they will inspire people to learn more about this precious natural resource". The images help the conservation of underwater environments because each one is recorded using GPS, allowing researchers to measure how conditions change over time. Click the link below to go to Google´s Lat-Long blog, where you´ll find more information on the company´s projects to help preserve the oceans. and shortcuts to the best images. bit.ly/oceans373
  ©: text taken from WEBUSER issue 373
picture: walk the coastline of Larsen Bay, Samoa, home to some of the most prestine coral reefs in the Pacific with ©: Google Street View
tags: #Google Street View

ref. # 042c  Pollution -G Star Denim

Many sea birds, marine mammals, fish and sea turtles are killed each year by ingestion of plastics or entanglement. Plastic also impacts ocean ecosystems and enters the food chain as animals eat it. With the RAW for the Oceans collection we aim to contribute to cleaning the oceans of plastic debris. Each step of the process of turning plastic into a new generation of denim clothes is explained below.
Read more: rawfortheoceans.g-star.com

tags: #pollution #G-Star denim

ref. # 042d  Pollution -World Oceans Day - June 8th

On World Oceans Day people around our blue planet celebrate and honor the ocean, which connects us all. Be a part of this growing global celebration! The Ocean Project has been the lead organization promoting and coordinating this event since 2002, in partnership with many other organizations and networks, including World Ocean Network and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
  ©: www.worldoceansday.org

tags: #World Ocean day #8th June

ref. # 042e  Energy -Wave & Tidal Stream Energy

Atlantis Meygen Tidal Energy Project Wave & Tidal Stream Energy has the potential to supply 20 per cent of UK electricity avoiding 30 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year.
Atlantis Resources' MeyGen Project in Scotland
With tidal stream technology turbines sit under the water and literally generate electricity as the tides move throught the turbine.
©: 30/6/2015 www.raconteur.net
tags: #Atlantis Meygen Tidal Energy Project

042f  Pollution -how to fight OCEAN acidification

Human actions have accelerated ocean acidification, but human actions can also slow down the process!
There are many things we can do on an individual, communtity or global level that will help reduce the effects of ocean acidification.
  ©: http://climateinterpreter.org
tags: #ocean acidification

ref. # 043  Pacific Ocean -'The Parallel Lives of Paul Gauguin and Jacques Brel'

Paul Gauguin The Spirit of the Dead keep Watch "Hidden within the depths of the Hiva Oa island in the Marquesas lie the tombs of two great artists - one a post-impressionist painter whose radical visual language would not be recognised until after his death; the other a Belgium-born singer-songwriter whose emotionally-charged performances made him one of the most popular French-language singers of all time."
"Paul Gauguin arrived in the Marquesas in 1891, having abandoned his family, business career and escaped angry creditors in Europe in pursuit of a life as an artist. Gauguin´s well-documented fascination with the Pacific grew from a disdain for European civilisation, which he considered to represent 'everything that is artificial and conventional'."
  ©: PD Wikipedia, Paul Gauguin. 'Spirit of the Dead Watching', 1892. Oil on canvas. Albright Knox Art Gallery.

More on Brell

tags: #Jacques Brell #Paul Gauguin

ref. # 043a  Pacific Ocean -Whale tooth female effigy figure

"Andean civilization is renowned for spectacular textiles that were at the heart of social politics and economics from earliest times. The fiber arts permeated all facets of daily existence, from clothing to protect the body to bridges spanning treacherous gorges. The form, materials, quality, and decorative imagery on clothing conveyed a person's social status or political affiliation and even recounted his or her specific accomplishments on behalf of the state. This female figure originally was dressed in clothing appropriate to her meaning as an offering - perhaps a building dedication cache or ritual deposit at a huaca, a sacred location where divine forces are concentrated. Coastal Andean peoples were keen observers of the vast ocean world. The Nazca, in particular, relied heavily on marine resources for food and materials for a variety of uses, such as the whale tooth from which this captivating lady was carved. The salty ocean and its unusual creatures constituted a dyadic opposition to the earth with its fresh waters. The carving of a ritual figurine from the tooth of a gigantic marine creature certainly carried extra spiritual significance. The authenticity of this figurine is now in question. Though the materials used are in keeping with those used by the ancient Nasca, recent discussions with scholars in the field in both United States and in Peru suggest that this type of figurine is not part of the known iconographic repertoire of the Nazca peoples of ancient Peru"
  ©: peruvian, possibly Nazca, Peru; CC   The Walters Art Museum
tags: #nazca #peru #whale

ref. # 043b  Pacific Ocean -'HMS Resolution and Discovery in Tahiti'

HMS Resolution and Discovery in Tahiti HMS Resolution and Discovery in Tahiti, commanded by James Cook -view of Morea, one of the Friendly Islands
"hand-coloured aquatints published by F. Jukes in 1787-88. 43 x 59cm (16 15/16 x 23 1/4in) (image size). This rare set of four aquatints relates to Cook's Third Voyage. The watercolours from which these prints were engraved were painted by James Cleveley, carpenter on HMS Resolution. According to the imprint on the aquatints, the original sketches were repainted by James's brother, John, in London. Cleveley died in 1786 and by the time his four watercolours were turned into aquatints by John Martyn two years later with changes to the scene made including."1787-1788
Author: John Martyn after John Cleveley the Younger (1747-1786)

  ©: Wikimedia commons, Source www.bonhams.com/auctions
tags: #HMS Resolution #HMS Discovery #James Cook #Tahiti

ref. # 044  Pacific Ocean -Lau Hala hat

Tradition, Innovation, and Hawai´ian cultural identity in Lau Hala Papale (Hats)
Before the coming of the first foreigners to the islands in 1778, Hawai´ians wore hats, usually of conical shape, only when working in the sun for long periods. With the introduction to western clothing styles, Hawaiians became acquainted with and incorporated hats into everyday and special occasion attire. The tradition of making and wearing lau hala hats (papale) continues today. Dedicated master teachers (kumu) teach students (haumana) how to gather and prepare lau, then weave the lau into hats of both traditional and innovative styles. Most teaching takes place among family and friends, but several organizations have formed to ensure that the knowledge of lau hala weaving is passed on to future generations.
  ©: McDowellModule
tags: #Lau Hala hats #Hawaii

044a  Pacific Ocean -South Seas fishhooks

South Sea fishhooks 19th century; New Zealand, Tahiti and Hawaii
Bone, shell and twine. People living in the South Seas have created a large range of different fishhooks, each suited to catching a particular type of fish.
  ©: photo: Robert Schilder in Canterbury Museums and Galleries
tags: #canterbury #pacific

044b  Pacific Ocean -Hawaiian sailors renew ties with Te Tai Tokerau

South Sea fishhooks A bond formed almost 30 years ago between two Pacific peoples has been renewed by the arrival of two voyaging canoes from Hawaii.
The double-hulled waka Hokole'a and Hikianalia were formally welcomed at Waitangi on Saturday, one year into a four-year round-the-world voyage raising awareness of climate change and other threats to our oceans.
For many of those gathered on Tii Beach, however, the arrival meant more than any environmental campaign. Many were old enough to remember the Hokole'a's first visit in 1985, when it was the first waka of modern times to retrace the ocean routes of their Polynesian forefathers, using ancient navigation techniques based on the stars, sun and currents.
The Hawaiians' Voyage of Rediscovery sparked the Maori revival of traditional ocean voyaging, and inspired Doubtless Bay's Hekenukumai Busby to build the waka hourua (double-hulled canoes) that have now sailed every side of the Polynesian Triangle formed by New Zealand, Hawaii and Rapanui (Easter Island).
  ©: asked to share: www.nzherald.co.nz

tags: #hawaii #new zealand #pacific #maori #

ref. # 045   Pacific Ocean -Unknown territories

Ferdinand Magellan Unknown territories or expanding areas of knowledge
"Scherer, Heinrich, 1628-1704. "Repræsentatio geographica itineris maritimi navis Victoriæ in qua ex personis CCXXXVII finita navigatione rediere tantum XVIII quæ solo indusio tectæ et faces accensas manibus præferentes in basilica hispalensi se voto exsolverunt VII Sept. ann. MDXXII" (ca. 1700). Copperplate map, with added color, 23 cm. in diam., on sheet 23 x 36 cm. From Scherer´s Atlas novus (Munich, 1702-1710). Reference: Shirley, Mapping of the World, 626. [Historic Maps Collection]"

"A devout Jesuit, Scherer´s maps usually contain religious overtones. Here, in its north polar projection of the world, Magellan´s circumnavigation is tracked and dated. The myth of California as an island continues. On the left is an engraving of Victoria, the only remaining ship from Magellan´s armada. On the right, the few survivors of the voyage are shown making their way to the Santa María de la Victoria church in Seville, where they go to give thanks for their safe return. The date, from the cartouche above the scene, is September 7, 1522; the number of men is 18 out of the original 237."
  ©: libweb5.princeton.edu

After the death of Ferdinand Magellan, the crew decided to persevere and find a route back home from the Philippines, around the Cape of Good Hope, to Spain. Credit for the successful circumnavigation of the globe should also go to the Basque mariner Juan Sebastian Elcano, who commanded the return voyage of Victoria - the only surviving vessel - from late 1521 until its arrival in Spain in September 1522.
tags: #Ferdinand Magellan #Sebastian Elcano

Ferdinand Magellan Biography:
Explorer (c. 1480 - 1521) While in the service of Spain, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led the first European voyage of discovery to circumnavigate the globe.
http://www.biography.com/people/ferdinand-magellan-9395202

045a   Unknown territories -Magellan´s probe

Ferdinand Magellan Unknown territories or expanding areas of knowledge
Launched from the space shuttle Atlantis, Magellan journeyed to Venus, entering an orbit that took it over the planet's poles. As Venus rotated, Magellan's radar penetrated the thick cloud that hides the surface. Magellan mapped Venus's surface in long, thin strips that covered 98% of the planet´s surface.
NASA mission scientists discovered that Venus is covered with volcanoes and strange landforms unlike any on the Earth. The probe saw few impact craters, suggesting Venus has a relatively young surface.
More on BBC

The Magellan spacecraft was launched 4 May 1989, and arrived at Venus on 10 August 1990.
  ©: Photo: View of Venus composed almost entirely of Magellan radar images (NASA/JPL/USGS)
tags: #Magellan probe #NASA

045b   Unknown territories -Ferdinand Magellan´s death

First around the world: MAGELLAN and Del Cano (DELCANO).
"In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition of 5 ships and 260 men in search of a westerly route to Asia. They experienced ice, storms, desertion, ship wreck, starvation and scurvy. Magellan was killed in a battle. In 1522 the leaking Victoria commanded by Del Cano creacked painfully back to Spain with 18 half-dead survivors."

"First world circumnavigator"
The Portuguese sailor Ferdinand Magellan is credited as being the first man to sail around the world. He was appointed commander of a fleet of five ships by king Carlos V of Spain at the beginning of the 16th. century. The aim was to find a way round the south tip of America to establish a new route to the Spice Islands. They departed from Sanlucar on 20th of September, 1519. He discovered the strait which has been given his name, and reached the Pacific Ocean on 28th of November, 1520. With the remaining three vessels of his fleet, he reached Cebu,in the heart of the Philippines the 7th of April, 1521. Magellan, the first European to reach these islands, was killed in a clash with natives on the neighboring island of Mactan, April 27, 1521. Even though he did not complete the voyage, it was Magellan's perseverance and leadership that made the first circumnavigation possible.
Elcano:
The actual title of 'First to circumnavigate the World' belongs to Juan Sebastian de Elcano, one of Magellan's captains, who succeeded in bringing "Victoria", the only surviving vessel of the original fleet, back to the Spanish port Sanlucar de Barrameda on the 6th of December, 1522.
Of the 239 men that left Seville in five ships only 17 returned. Most had perished from starvation and scurvy. Others died in accidents and clashes with natives. Some died in Portuguese prisons. We know the details of this extraordinary voyage from the complete log that was kept by an Italian crew-member, Antonio Lombardo Pigafetta. Portions of the translations of this log-book, as well as translations of other documents relating to this historic voyage, may be read here. The original manuscript in Italian is in the Ambrosian Library in Milan.
In the service of king Manuel of Portugal, Fernando Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães in Portuguese) had previously sailed round the Cape of Good Hope (the southern tip of Africa) as far east as Ambon and Banda in the Mollucan Islands, then called the Spice Islands, the rich source of nutmeg and cloves. These islands are further east than the Philippines, consequently it is correct to state that Magellan had sailed all around the world, because he had crossed all the meridians in two separate voyages.
He returned to Portugal in 1512 and fell out of favor with the Portuguese court. He then went to the Spanish court to obtain support to search for a westbound passage to the Spice Islands."
"Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice.. an Indian hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the Indian's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all rushed themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off.."
  ©: Wikipedia

tags: #Magellan; #de Elcano; #Delcano

ref. # 045c   Unknown territories - Magellan's Map of Venus

The Magellan spacecraft imaged more than 98% of Venus at a resolution of about 100 meters; the effective resolution of these images is about 3 kilometers. A mosaic of the Magellan images (most with illumination from the west) forms the image base. Gaps in the Magellan coverage were filled with images from Soviet Venera 15 and 16 spacecraft in the northern quarter of the planet, with images from the Earth-based Arecibo radar in a region centered roughly on 0 degrees latitude and 0 degrees longitude, and with a neutral tone elsewhere (primarily near the south pole).
The composite image was processed to improve contrast and to emphasize small features and was color-coded to represent elevation. Gaps in the elevation data from the Magellan radar altimeter were filled with altimetry from the Venera spacecraft and the U.S. Pioneer Venus missions.
  ©:
tags: 

045d   Unknown territories -Sebastian Munster, 1590, North & South America

Sebastian Munster, 1590, North & South America Sebastian Munster, 1590, North & South America
  ©: Public Domain
tags: #Sebastian Munster

ref. # 046  Unknown territories -portrait of Fernando de Magallanes

Fernando de Magallanes "Fernando de Magallanes, c. 1480 - 27 April 1521, was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth."
Wikipedia

"Born into a wealthy Portuguese family in around 1480, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was eventually selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands (the "Spice Islands"). Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea" (the modern Pacific Ocean). Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the expedition reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and returned home via the Indian Ocean to complete the first circuit of the globe. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521.
The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan's navigational skills have also been acknowledged in the naming of objects associated with the stars, including the Magellanic Clouds, now known to be two nearby dwarf galaxies; the twin lunar craters of Magelhaens and Magelhaens A; and the Martian crater of Magelhaens." Wikipedia
  ©: photo: Edward Carlile
tags: #Fernando de Magellanes

ref. # 047  safety -Richard van Pham

Richard van Pham 62-year-old Pham set out from Long Beach, California on his 26-foot sail boat Sea Breeze (a Columbia 26 Mark I) heading for Catalina Island in late May 2002 - which should have taken about three hours. He lived on the boat in between fishing trips. During the journey he claimed a sudden storm wrecked his mast and ruined his outboard motor. It later transpired he did not have a working VHF radio on board his boat. As he had no family, and had not filed a float plan, he was not reported missing. Pham said he had survived on fish and birds and drinking rain water caught in a five-gallon bucket. He had caught turtles and used meat to trap sea birds such as cormorants. Using evaporated sea water he was able to preserve the meat he caught. Pham's boat did have solar power installed which allowed him to watch videos on a small television.
  ©: Wikipedia, SF Gate
tags: #Richard van Pham

ref. # 047a  safety -Thalassophobia

"Fear of the Ocean Phobia - Thalassophobia There are many phobias associated with water bodies and Thalassophobia is one of them. It refers to an intense and often unwarranted fear of the ocean. The word Thalassophobia comes from Greek thalassa meaning 'sea or ocean' and phobos meaning fear or dread.

Thalassophobia is often related to fear of salty water, fear of large waves, fear of distance from the land as well as fear of the vast emptiness. Some Thalassophobes might not be afraid of the sea per se; they are simply afraid of encountering sea creatures. Oceans are vast and relatively unexplored and people already suffering from anxiety disorders fear it due to its 'mysteries'."
  © text:Thalassophobia,   photo: www.houzz.com

tags: #Thalassophobia

ref. # 047b  safety -Tony Bullimore

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 047c  safety -Robertson family

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 047d  safety -the 'Minnehaha'

The Gibsons of Scilly The Minnehaha 1874 The Gibsons of Scilly 'The Minnehaha' (1874)
"The Minnehaha was shipwrecked in 1874 as it travelled from Peru to Dublin. It was carrying guano to be used as fertiliser and struck Peninnis Head rocks when the captain lost his way. The ship sank so quickly that some men were drowned in their berths, ten died in total including the captain.
On 18 January 1874, while travelling from Callao, Peru to Dublin, the 845-ton four-masted barque Minnehaha carrying guano was wrecked off Peninnis Head, St Mary's, Isles of Scilly.
Her pilot mistook the St Agnes light for the Wolf Rock and thought they were passing between the Isles of Scilly and the Wolf. Shortly after she struck a rock off Peninnis Head and the vessel sunk at once with some of the crew being drowned in their berths. Those on deck climbed into the rigging, and as the tide rose the ship was driven closer to land, and some managed to climb onto the shore over the jib boom. The master, pilot and eight crew drowned."
  ©: text: artblart.com

tags: #minnehaha #artblart.com #shipwreck #Gibsons of Scilly

047e  safety -Maritime Accidents and Injuries

Maritime Injuries Center Maritime Accidents and Injuries
While working in the maritime industry can be exciting and lucrative, it can also be highly dangerous. If you've been injured on the job, you have rights and options.
"We strive to provide expert information on all topics related to maritime accidents and injuries. Our team is passionate about helping injured maritime workers and their families get the answers and support they need."
  ©:www.maritimeinjurycenter.com
tags: #Maritime #Accidents #Injuries

047f  safety -Owen Coffin

" .. a first-time whaleship crewman named Owen Coffin was executed by a comrade to feed three starving mates.
Coffin was the second-to-last victim of an event which shocked the whaling community and inspired the novel Moby Dick. Owen Coffin was a 17-year-old aboard a doomed whaling vessel called the Essex (Essex departed Nantucket 12 August 1819; rammed and sunk by a sperm whale 20 November 1820). He was cousin to George Pollard, Jr., who was making his first trek to the Pacific whaling grounds as a ship's captain"
  ©: read more: www.executedtoday.com, en.wikipedia.org
tags: #executed today #cannibalism, #whaling, #Essex

ref. # 048  safety -'the Rescue'

A scene at sea featuring five sculptural figures -four shipwrecked sailors and someone who appears to be a gentleman passenger -signaling a ship in the far distance in hope of being rescued.
Accession Number: 00.47.2 'the Rescue', William Allen Wall (1801-1885)
Date: circa 1850 Medium: oil on canvas Dimensions: 26 x 36 inches (66 x 91.4 cm)
  ©: the New Bedford Whaling Museum Photo Archives at: photoresearch@whalingmuseum.org
tags: #William allen Wall #the Rescue #New Bedford Whaling Museum

ref. # 048a  safety -Desalinator

top desalinator This model uses a hand pump to force sea water at extremely high press through the reverse-osmosis membrane within the watermaker. The Survivor 35 can produce 1.2 Gallons of fresh water per hour, which is the highest output for manual-powered desalinators. According to the Katadyn website, with proper care, there is no expiration date for the membrane, which filters up to 98.4% of salt in sea water
  ©: from: theteakrail.com
tags: #desalinator

ref. # 049 -Saint Helena

Please see #204
  ©:
tags: 

ref.  050 -Napoleon on Saint Helena

Napoleon at Saint Helena   ©: photo 2014 Robert Schilder at 'the Briars', Saint Helena
tags: #Napoleon Bonaparte

Please, for much more on Napoleon at Saint Helena see: #206

ref. # 051  Jan Huygen van Linschoten  -Jan Huygen van Linschoten

"The significance of this first Dutch survey of the former Netherlands East Indies lies in the valuable sailing instructions which Van Linschoten had managed to acquire, information that could only be found in the secret archives of the Portuguese administration. Abusing the trust put in him he had copied it page by page. Thus, in one go, the greatly coveted shipping route to the Netherlands East Indies and the route between the Asiatic sea ports as such, came within reach. Even more crucially, Van Linschoten had also obtained information on very delicate nautical data that provided insight into the currents, deeps, islands and sandbanks, and such knowledge was absolutely vital for safe navigation. Besides, everything was elucidated by coastal depictions and maps of unprecedented accuracy for those days."
National Library of the Netherlands (this page no longer available)
There's a quiet well known children song about Jan Huygen, which is even sung today ...
  ©:
tags: #Jan Huygen van Linschoten

See also #204

ref. # 051a -Dirck Gerritz. Pomp

"Dirck Gerritszoon Pomp, alias Dirck China (1544-c1608), was a Dutch sailor of the 16th-17th century, and the first known Dutchman to visit China and Japan."
Wikipedia

picture: Abraham de Verwer, approx. 1615, ´Ships on the river Amstel´
"Two ships, in particular, stand out in this painting. The first is the yacht moored to the palings, which is flying a flag with the arms of Amsterdam and might be a pleasure yacht, a ferry or an official city yacht. The yacht on the left is unusual in that it does not have the gaff or spritsail rig common at this period, but a jibheaded rig with loose-footed, triangular sails. This probably originated in Portugal, and was introduced into Holland at the end of the sixteenth century by Dutchmen in Portuguese service, like Jan Huygen van Linschoten and Dirck Gerritsz. Pomp. This is the earliest known painting of a vessel with this rig."   ©: picture www.robkattenburg.nl

tags: #Linschoten #Pomp #Abraham de Verwer

- CLICK THE IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW -

051b  Jan Huygen van Linschoten  -fusta

fusta Drawing of a 'fusta' which is a narrow, light and fast ship with shallow draft, powered by both oars and sail—in essence a small galley, by Jan Huygen van Linschoten   ©: PD wikipedia
tags: #fusta #Jan Huygen van Linschoten

051c  Jan Huygen van Linschoten  -map of Saint Helena

Jan Huygen van Linschoten map Saint Helena LINSCHOTEN, Jan Huygen van.
St. Helena) Insula D. Helenae Sacra Coeli - LINSCHOTEN, Jan Huygen van - 1589. [991929]
Amsterdam 1589 - Original engraved map (34 x 50 cm) published in the "Itinerario", by Baptist van Doetecum, a fine view of St. Helena with ships and compass rose in the foreground.
[Bookseller: Robert Frew Ltd. ABA ILAB]
  ©:www.vialibri.net (invite to copy)
tags:  Jan Huijgen van Linschoten #Saint Helena

052 -Laurens de Graaf

"Laurens Cornelis Boudewijn de Graaf (c. 1653, Dordrecht, Dutch Republic - 24 May 1704, Cap-Français, Saint-Domingue) was a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue during the late 17th and early 18th century." Wikipedia
  ©: (the portrait of Laurens de Graaf of disputed authenticity) PD
tags: #Laurens de Graaf #Graff Lorens

ref. # 053  How deep is our Ocean? -Salp

Salp chain, Off shore, San Diego.
Four-inch (10.2-centimeter) sea salps link together to make luminous chains up to fifteen feet (4.6 meters) long!
  ©: Mick McMurray
www.earthandseaphoto.com   nationalgeographic.com

tags: #salp #ocean deep

ref. # 053a  How deep is the ocean? -Oldest Water

oldest water in the world Earth's oldest body of water found beneath Canada contains more than all of the world's rivers, swamps and lakes put together Geologists estimate ancient rocks contain around 2.5 million cubic miles of water, more than all of the world's rivers, swamps and lakes put together Isotope testing has shown the water is up to 2.7 billion years old in places Canadian and British researchers found ancient water bubbling up through fissures in the rock in 19 mines in Canada, South Africa and Scandinavia Scientists say ancient water is viscous like maple syrup but tastes 'terrible'

  ©: Read more: www.dailymail.co.uk
www.livescience.com
www.newscientist.com
tags: #

ref. # 053b  How deep is the ocean? -'Immortal' Jellyfish

Turritopsis dohrnii "About as wide as a human pinky nail when fully grown, the immortal jellyfish (scientific name: Turritopsis dohrnii) was discovered in the Mediterranean Sea in 1883. But its unique ability was not discovered until the 1990s."
news.nationalgeographic.com

"After more than 4,000 years - almost since the dawn of recorded time, when Utnapishtim told Gilgamesh that the secret to immortality lay in a coral found on the ocean floor - man finally discovered eternal life in 1988. He found it, in fact, on the ocean floor. The discovery was made unwittingly by Christian Sommer, a German marine-biology student in his early 20s. He was spending the summer in Rapallo, a small city on the Italian Riviera, where exactly one century earlier Friedrich Nietzsche conceived "Thus Spoke Zarathustra": "Everything goes, everything comes back; eternally rolls the wheel of being. Everything dies, everything blossoms again .."
Read more: www.nytimes.com
and hubpages.com/education/immortal-jellyfish
Believe it or not, this jellyfish is biologically immortal. The jellyfish, Turritopsis dohrnii but formerly classified as Turritopsis nutricula, can revert back to its childhood stage through a process called transdifferentiation. It can only be killed by predation or by getting sick.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transdifferentiation
  ©: photograph Takashi Murai
tags: #Turritopsis dohrnii #Takashi Murai #immortal jellyfish

054  How high is the Sky? -Ant Planetary Nebula

Ant Nebula "The Ant planetary nebula (Menzel 3 or Mz 3). STScI-PRC2001-05. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals the ant's body as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying, Sun-like star. Though approaching the violence of an explosion, the ejection of gas from the dying star at the center of Mz3 has intriguing symmetrical patterns unlike the chaotic patterns expected from an ordinary explosion. Scientists using the Hubble space telescope would like to understand how a spherical star can produce such prominent, non-spherical symmetries in the gas that it ejects.
  ©: Mike Herbaut & the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator
tags: #Arctic ant Nebula #ESO #NASA

054a  How high is the Sky? Phytoplankton

"Brilliant streaks of blue and duller swirls of green color the South Atlantic Ocean in this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image, taken on January 4, 2005, by NASA's Terra satellite. The colors are a result of millions of microscopic plants growing near the surface of the water. Called phytoplankton, some varieties of the plants are coated with white scales. When viewed through the ocean waters, the floating white plants appear blue. In places, chlorophyll gives the waters a green tint."
earthobservatory.nasa.gov
  ©: NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
tags: #ocean deep #phytoplankton

055   Utopia -Utopia

Utopia Thomas More "Hand-tinted map of the Island of Utopia from A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia by Thomas Moore, 1516"

"... More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale. He also wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an ideal and imaginary island nation. More opposed the King's separation from the Catholic Church, refusing to accept him as Supreme Head of the Church of England, and what he saw as Henry's bigamous marriage to Anne Boleyn. Tried for treason, More was convicted and beheaded .." Wikipedia

"Utopia, or the land of nowhere, is undoubtedly the most famous work of Thomas More (Tomas More). The idea was to create a perfect world where all men are equal and maintain an idyllic relationship with their natural surroundings. The idea for the book was born of accounts by navigator and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Amerigo Vespucci) and referred to the volcanic archipelago Fernando de Noronha, currently located in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Since its early editions we can see illustrations (maps) of this imagined territory."
  ©  PD Utopia Island, British Library et al. 1516 edition
tags: #Thomas More #Utopia #legendary islands

055a   Utopia -Utopia II

Utopia by Jeroen Pomp- Outsider Art Museum, Hermitage, Amsterdam I guess we all have our own kind of 'Utopia', this painting is by Jeroen Pomp and part of the Outsider Art Museum exhibition in the Heritage Amsterdam, spring 2016
  ©: Jeroen Pomp
tags:  #Utopia #Jeroen Pomp

057   Ocean Literature -´Moby Dick´

Moby Dick Cover scan of a Classics Comics book
  ©: PD
tags: #moby dick

057a   Ocean Literature -´Marco Polo Travels´

Marco Polo Travels A Library of Medieval Manuscripts Online
While the Catalogue of Digitized Medieval Manuscripts will be of greatest interest to specialists, many others may be interested in this already vast and growing repository (more than 20,000 manuscripts in 20 languages by nearly 200 authors, and representing 300 libraries from around the world) of treasures from the medieval world. Many of these books are astonishing works of art even aside from their important historical contents.
For more information on the project that led to the creation of this exquisite online collection, see Science Daily’s Virtual Library of Medieval Manuscripts Created

.   ©: haysvillelibrary.wordpress.com
tags: #marco polo

ref. # 058  'Ocean Memory' game - 'Jonah and the whale'

Jonah and the whale Object: print
Title: Jonah and the whale - Immanis Ionam Triduanum Hic Evomit Alui E latebris pistrix, postquam mandata recoxit.
Artist/Maker: Heemskerk, Marten-Jacobsz van Veen --Galle, Philip
Date: 1566
Material: engraving, paper
Dimensions: [H]8 1/8" [W]9 5/8"
Description: Scene of a giant fish (or whale) expelling a bearded, dishevelled man from its mouth onto dry land. In the background is a large city. At the top of the scene is the image of God peering down from a bank of clouds. This version retains the depiction of God indicating that it may have been hidden during periods of religious turmoil in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when such images might have been censored by fanatics. See also 2001.100.8236 which has the God image cropped from the print. Translation of the caption: When God had commanded this one [the whale], Jonah was vomited out of the fish's depths, after he [the whale] had recognized the command.
from: New Bedford Whaling Museum Number: 2001.100.8540
tags: #Jonah and the Whale #Philip Galle #Maarten Jacobsz. van Veen

058a  'Ocean Memory' game - 'Jonas und der Wal'

Jonas und der Wal Jonas und der Wal, Universitätsmatrikel in Erfurt Justus Jonas auf einem Gemälde
Abgebildet ist auch der Erfurter Reformator Justus Jonas (oben knieend) - um 1550.

"Die Matrikelbücher der Universität Erfurt überliefern eine farbige Abbildung des Wappens, das Justus Jonas führte. Es stellt die Szene des Alten Testaments dar, die Jona zeigt, als er aus dem Maul des großen Fisches entsteigt: "Jona war drei Tage und drei Nächte im Bauch des Fisches, und er betete zum Herrn. Da befahl der dem Fisch, Jona an Land zu speien" (Jona 2).
Typologisch wird diese Szene auch im Neuen Testament bei Matthäus (12,40) auf Jesu Vorhersage seiner Auferstehung gedeutet: "Gleichwie Jona drei Tage im Bauch des Meeresfisches war, also wird der Menschensohn drei Tage und drei Nächte mitten in der Erde sein." Diese religiöse Symbolik dürfte dem Theologen Jonas sehr präsent gewesen sein."
  © de.wikipedia.org
Read more here

tags: # Jonas #Jonah #Jonas und der Wal

059  Maps & Mapmakers  -Toscanelli´s Map (modern version of)

modern version of Toscanelli map 1. "The Florentine mathematician, astronomer and cosmographer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1397-1482) is probably best remembered for his proposal in 1474 to the Portuguese court of a scheme to sail west as a shortcut to reach the fabled Spice Islands in the east. Toscanelli never made it across the ocean, but his proposal did inspire Columbus, who took Toscanelli´s map with him on his first transatlantic voyage in 1492. The Genoese navigator was not only inspired, but also misguided by Toscanelli´s underestimation of the earth´s circumference, leading him to think he had reached Cipangu (Japan) instead of a whole new, unknown continent lying in between Europe and Asia.
The eastern part of Toscanellli´s map, showing the extreme west of Europe and northwest of Africa, is quite accurate, even if the size of the land masses is exaggerated (in relation to the ghostly projection of the Americas); Portuguese mariners had travelled quite far south along the coast of Africa, and knew about the Azores (rediscovered in 1427). The Canary Islands were conquered by the Castilians from 1402 onwards. Nevertheless, many of the islands pictured here in the western Atlantic Ocean are quite clearly some of the many phantom islands that for a long time were recorded on maps, but were never more than legends. One such example is Hy-Brasil, probably one of the islands pictured closest to Ireland.
Another phantom island, mentioned on this map, is Antillia, also known as the Island of Seven Cities or St Brendan´s Island (ref. 073), and often used as a synonym for the Isles of the Blessed or the Fortunate Islands. The muddled legends of Antillia have been around since at least Plutarch´s time (ca. 74 AD). Its name might be a corruption of Atlantis; or a derivation of anterioris insula, Latin for an island located ´before´ Cipangu; or a transformation of Jazeerat at-Tennyn, Arabic for ´Island of the Dragon´. Toscanelli on his map uses Antillia as the main marker for measuring distance between Portugal and Chipangu."
this text:   © 2014, Frank Jacobs, The Big Think, Inc.

2. A modern version of Toscanelli's map. The Americas are depicted in light blue.
"Map of the Atlantic Ocean according to Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1474) Date: 1884. Source: "A literary and historical atlas of America, by J.G. Bartholomew"
In 1474 Toscanelli sent a letter and a map to his Portuguese correspondent Fernão Martins, priest at the Lisbon Cathedral, detailing a scheme for sailing westwards to reach the Spice Islands and Asia. Fernão Martins delivered his letter to the King Afonso V of Portugal, in his court of Lisbon. The original of this letter was lost, but its existence is known through Toscanelli himself, who later transcribed it along with the map and sent it to Christopher Columbus, who carried them with him during his first voyage to the new world. Toscanelli had miscalculated the size of the earth which resulted in Columbus not realizing initially he had found a new continent."
  ©: this text :Wikipedia

see also: Who discoverd America on Pinterest

read more
  © map: Public Domain
tags: #toscanelli #map #columbus

059a  Maps & Mapmakers  -Columbus Map

Columbus Map Christopher Colombus map. Lisbon, workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Colombus, c.1490. This map cannot be definitely linked to Columbus.

  ©: PD circa 1490, Source Bibliothèque Nationale de France (CPL GE AA 562 RES)
tags: #map #Columbus #

059b  Maps & Mapmakers  -Genoese World Map

Genoese World Map "The Genoese map is a 1457 world map. The map relied extensively on the account of the traveler to Asia Niccolo da Conti, rather than the usual source of Marco Polo. The author is not known, but is a more modern development than the Fra Mauro world map, with fairly good proportions given to each continents. The map also depicts a three-masted European ship in the Indian Ocean, something which had not occurred yet at the time."
Wikipedia
Link with extensive information: cartographic-images.net

  ©: Public Domain
tags: #Genoese World Map #Niccolo da Conti

059c  Maps & Mapmakers  -Piri Reis map

Piri Reis map The Piri Re'is map was found in 1929 in the Imperial Palace in Constantinople. It is painted on parchment and dated 919 A.H. (in the Islamic calendar), which corresponds to 1513 AD. It is signed by an admiral of the Turkish Navy named Piri Ibn Haji Memmed, also known as Piri Re'is. According to Piri Re'is, the map had been assembled from a set of 20 maps drawn in the time of Alexander the Great.
read more: Piri Re'is map
A very interesting index explaining the Piri Re'is map
[From "The Oldest Map of America," by Professor Dr. Afet Inan. Ankara, 1954, pp. 28-34.]
Surviving fragment of the Piri Reis map showing Central and South America shores. In his notes appended to it is written "the map of the western lands drawn by Columbus".
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piri_Reis_map
"The Piri Re'is Map is only one of several anomalous maps drawn in the 15th Century and earlier which appear to represent better information about the shape of the continents than should have been known at the time. Furthermore, this information appears to have been obtained at some distant time in the past."
www.sacred-texts.com/Piri-Reis/The Piri Re'is Map.htm

  ©: reproduction and more info on: Wikipedia
tags: #Columbus #Piri Reis map

059d  Maps & Mapmakers  -Martellus map

Martellus map The Martellus Map (pictured brightened) which was created in 1491 and is said to have been used by Christopher Columbus to navigate the Atlantic, has started to reveal its secrets because faded passages and locations have started to be deciphered by scientists
"The Martellus Map was created in 1491 by German cartographer Henricus Martellus. It's said that Columbus used this map or one like it to persuade Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile to support him in the early 1490s. The map was made by a German cartographer living in Florence and reflects the latest theories about the form of the world and the most accurate ways of portraying it on a flat surface.It seemed to prove that, as Columbus argued, there wasn't a great distance between Europe and China by sea. The map is also the first to record the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa by the Portuguese in 1488. This proved that there wasn't a land link to Asia in the south - and that Europeans could reach the riches of the East Indies by sea without having to go through Muslim-held lands."
Read more: www.dailymail.co.uk

See also:: www.latinamericanstudies.org
  ©: PD
tags: #Martellus Map #Columbus

ref. # 059e  Maps & Mapmakers  - Early Venetian Sailing Directions

Drawings of zodiacs, hands, and divisions of time in Nicolo Stolfo. 'Early Venetian Sailing Directions in the Mediterranean Sea' Manuscript Venice, August 1499.   © Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

"By the late fifteenth century an emerging body of literature to facilitate sea travel in the Mediterranean world was available. This early book of sailing directions served as a handy guide for the sailor and a storehouse of practical information for laymen. The use of the hand and zodiac for information was considered vital to the 15th century Mediterranean navigator".
  © text & picture: www.ibiblio.org
tags: #Venice #navigation #sailing direction

059f  Maps & Mapmakers  -NASA picture of the Caribbean

NASA picture of the Caribbean The Caribbean photographed from the International Space Station. Just imagine the face of Columbus when he could have seen this .. (Cuba - top, Andros Island bottom)
  ©: NASA
tags: #NASA #Caribbean #ISS #International Space Station

059g  Maps & Mapmakers  --another Piri reis map

Piri Reis map Creator: Piri Reis (Turkish, 1465-1555) (Author), Period: late 11th century AH/AD 17th century-early 12th century AH/AD 18th century (Ottoman), Medium: ink and pigments on laid European paper, Measurements: H: 13 3/8 x W: 9 7/16 in. (34 x 24 cm), place of origin: Turkey
please also download the complete map: pdf, with many magnificient maps and artwork.
"Originally composed in 932 AH/AD 1525 and dedicated to Sultan Süleyman I ("The Magnificent"), this great work by Piri REIS (d. 962 AH/AD 1555) on navigation was later revised and expanded. Walters manuscript W.658, made mostly in the late 11th century AH/AD 17th, is based on the later expanded version and has some 240 exquisitely executed maps and portolan charts. They include a world map (fol. 41a) with the outline of the Americas, as well as maps of coastlines (bays, capes, peninsulas), islands, mountains, and cities of the Mediterranean basin and the Black Sea. The work starts with the description of the coastline of Anatolia and the islands of the Aegean Sea, the Peloponnese peninsula, and the eastern and western coasts of the Adriatic Sea. It then proceeds to describe the western shores of Italy, southern France, Spain, North Africa, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, western Anatolia, various islands north of Crete, the Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, and the Black Sea. It ends with a map of the shores of the Caspian Sea (fol. 374a). 9/12/2013"
  ©: CC   and The Walters Art Museum
tags: #Piri Reis #the Walters Art Museum

ref. # 059h  Maps & Mapmakers  - Piri Reis

Taner ALAKUŞ 'Piri REIS'. His name means Captain Piri. He is known as the person who has drawn the Piri Reis Map. His full name was 'Haci Ahmed Muhiddin Piri'. Piri REIS is the author of the Kitab-i Bahriye, one of the most famous pre-modern books of navigation, including a world map.
more on Piri Reis here: www.katryngauci.com
  ©: Taner Alakuş, www.taneralakus.com
tags:  #Piri Reis #Taner Alakus

059i  Maps & Mapmakers -de Virga's World Map

de Virga World map "This map by the Venetian cartographer, Albertin de VIRGA, shows Marco Polo's 'Southern Continent' southeast of Asia. The island-continent is called 'Ca-paru or Great India'. The map was made between 1410 and 1414. It was not until more than a century later that Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard, finally reached Peru. He arrived at the shores of a southern mainland that was already named 'Peru'. And it was already included on Chinese, Venetian, and Portuguese maps. Western historians have given Pizarro credit for discovering Peru -even though it was already discovered and mapped by somebody else."
From a theory by Gunnar Thompson
  ©: cartographic-images.net
tags: #map; #mapmaker; #Albertin de Virga; #

059j  Maps & Mapmakers -'Liu Gang Map'

Liu Gang Map "Moreover, some of the errors in the 1418 map soon turned up in European maps, the most striking being California drawn as an island. The Portuguese are aware of a world map drawn before 1420 by a cartographer named Albertin di Virga, which showed Africa and the Americas. Since no Portuguese seamen had yet discovered those places, the most obvious source for the information seems to be European copies of Chinese maps."

"A map that purports to show Chinese mariners discovered the New World before Christopher Columbus could be genuine, university scientists in New Zealand said yesterday." www.chinadaily.com.cn

  ©: www.chengho.org

Index of maps relating to Gavin Menzies presentation in Beijing, March 22nd 2006 www.gavinmenzies.net

tags: #map; #mapmaker; #Liu Gang; #Gavin Menzies

059k  Maps & Mapmakers -'Hendon Harris World Map 5'

"Few people expect ever to own documents that could change world history," Harris writes in her 2008 book, Secret Maps of the Ancient World, "and neither did we. Yet for decades, under my brother's bed, lay ancient Asian maps that we, our father's seven children, inherited from him. Some believe that they may contain a secret of the ancient world."
"Q: People who read your book, your father's book and Gavin Menzies' book can easily be overwhelmed by all of the evidence you cite. But critics contend most of it is circumstantial. Of everything you've seen and learned about, what has been the most convincing evidence for you? A: DNA evidence, which is quite recent. We've known for a long time that the 'Chinese blue spot', which appears on the buttocks of babies and then disappears, is also seen at birth in many Native American communities. Now we know that five distinct genetic markers match ancient Chinese with modern Native Americans. That's evidence that you can take to court and win."

  ©: www.chinadaily.com.cn

tags: #map; #mapmaker; #Hendon Harris; #

059l  Maps & Mapmakers -Waldseemüller map of 1507

Waldseemueleers World map 1507 Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes.
Title: Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes.
Other Title: Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru que lustrationes
Contributor Names: WALDSEEMÜLLER, Martin, 1470-1519.
Created / Published: Strasbourg, France? : s.n., (1507)
Notes:
- Relief shown pictorially.
- First document known to name America.
- Red ink grid on 2 sheets. Text applied over blank areas on 2 sheets. Manuscript annotations in the margin of 1 sheet.
- All sheets bear a watermark of a triple pointed crown.
- Two stamps on verso of upper left hand sheet: Fürstl. Waldburg Wolfegg'sches Kupferstichkabinett -- Furstl. Waldbg. Wolf. Bibliothek.
- Exhibited: Rivers, edens, empires: Lewis & Clark and the revealing of America, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., July 24-Nov. 29, 2003.
- LC digital image is a composite map from the twelve separate sheets.
- Originally bound with Waldseemüller's 1516 Carta marina in the Schöner Sammelband.
Medium: 1 map on 12 sheets ; 128 x 233 cm., sheets 46 x 63 cm. or smaller.
Call Number/Physical Location: G3200 1507 .W3
Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA dcu
Digital Id: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3200.ct000725C, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3200.ct000725
Library of Congress Control Number: 2003626426
Acquired for: US$ 10.000.000,00
  ©: LCCN Permalink: LOC
tags: #map; #mapmaker; #LOC; #Waldseemueller

ref. # 060   Columbus - Christopher Columbus portrait

portrait of Christopher Columbus by Marie-Madeleine Gérard Italian Cristoforo COLOMBO, Spanish Cristobal COLON (born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoa [Italy]- died May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain), master navigator and admiral whose four transatlantic voyages (1492-'93, 1493-'96, 1498-'1500, and 1502-'04) opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas. He has long been called the "discoverer" of the New World, although Vikings such as Leif Eriksson had visited North America five centuries earlier. Columbus made his transatlantic voyages under the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I, the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon, Castile, and Leon in Spain. He was at first full of hope and ambition, however, he died a disappointed man.
text: www.britannica.com

A very interesting essay about life on board the Santa María is on the website of the Mariners's Museum: marinersmuseum.org

indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com
  ©:portrait "Christophe Colomb" by Marie-Madeleine Gérard, reproduction: Wikipedia - CC
tags: #Christopher Columbus #Marie-Madeleine Gerard #Santa Maria

ref. # 060a   Columbus - Christopher Columbus portrait.

portrait of Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus, oil painting, said to be the most accurate likeness of the explorer, attributed to Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, c. 1525.
See also: Pinterest
  ©: kids.britannica.com
tags: #Christopher Columbus #Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio

ref. # 060b   Columbus - ´morphed´ image of Christopher Columbus

image of Christopher Columbus ´Morphed´ image of Columbus from eight separate prints. Originally published in Visual Anthropology, Vol. 7, pp. 97-98
Morphing technology was used to produce a composite portrait of Christopher Columbus. This resulted in the portrait shown in Figure 1. Figure 2, referring back to the previous article, illustrates how each "original" portrait shown in the extreme right and left columns was scanned as a PICT file at 72dpi. The images were cropped, flipped (if necessary) and similarly sized using Adobe PhotoShop 2.5.1. Each pair of portraits was then turned into a composite image using the Morph 1.0 program by Gryphon. Morphed pairs were finally combined to make this composite image of Columbus.
via: http://paulmartinlester.info/writings/morph.html, with a very interesting article about portrait(S) of Christopher C. at paulmartinlester.info
tags: #Christopher Columbus #

060c   Columbus -'Virgin of the Navigators'

Virgin of the Navigators The Virgin of the Navigators by Alejo Fernández, the earliest known painting about the discovery of the Americas, 1531-36.

The Virgin of the Navigators (Spanish: La Virgen de los Mareantes) is a painting by Spanish artist Alejo Fernández, created as the central panel of an altarpiece for the chapel of the Casa de ContrataciOn building in Seville, southern Spain. It is the earliest known painting whose subject is the discovery of the Americas.
The painting is a version of the common iconography of the Virgin of Mercy, in which the Virgin Mary protects the faithful under the folds of her mantel, best known from the 1445 painting The Madonna of Mercy by Piero della Francesca. In this the Virgin Mary is always the largest figure in the picture, towering above those being protected.
Sometime before 1536, officials at the Casa de ContrataciOn commissioned the painting as the central panel of an altarpiece that they installed in the Hall of Audiences, so that the room could also serve as a chapel. Scholars date the painting to 1531-36.
text from: self.gutenberg.org/articles/the_virgin_of_the_navigators
  ©: Public Domain, picture from Wikipedia
tags: #Virgin of the #Navigators

060d   Columbus -Christopher Columbus portrait

Christopher Columbus portrait Christopher Columbus´ portrait (detail of The Virgin of the Navigators), painted by Alejo Fernández between 1531 and 1536
Alejo Fernández (1475-1545) - Photo by historian Manuel Rosa.
Painting of Christopher Columbus. The painting Virgen de los Navegantes (in the Sala de los Almirantes, Royal Alcazar, Seville). A painting by Alejo Fernández between 1531 and 1536. It is the only state sponsored portrait of the First Admiral of the Indias called Don Cristoval Colon known today as Christopher Columbus in English.
  ©: en.wikipedia.org

tags: #Christopher #Columbus #portrait #Alejo Fernandez

060e   Columbus -tomb Columbus Sevilla

tomb Columbus Sevilla Just inside the Cathedral door of Seville´s massive cathedral stands a monument to Christopher Columbus. His tomb is held aloft by four allegorical figures representing the four kingdoms of Spain during Columbus´ life, Castille, Aragon, Navara and Leon.
read more: http://www.atlasobscura.com
  ©: photograph Robert Schilder
tags: #Columbus #tomb #Sevilla #cathedral

many more links here

060f   Columbus -Palacio's Plan for Colossal Monument to Columbus (1890)

Palacio's Plan for Colossal Monument to Columbus (1890) "Appearing in the October 1890 issue of Scientific American magazine, the engraving above is an artist's rendering of the truly gigantic monument planned by the Spanish architect Alberto Palacio in honour of Christopher Columbus. The structure was designed for the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, an event to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Columbus arrival in the New World in 1492. The globe of Palacio's design was envisaged to be nearly 1000ft in diameter and to house a spiralling stairway circumambulating its surface - internal until the equator and then external for the northern hemisphere portion, reaching finally the north-pole where sits an enormous copy of one of Columbus caravel ships (whose hull would house a meteorological observatory). At night the shapes of the continents would be illuminated by a huge number of lights casting beams from below. In the base would be a statue-littered institutional complex dedicated to the natural sciences and geographical exploration, as well as a network of promenades, cafes and restaurants for the public. Not unsurprisingly Palacio's ambitious vision was never realised as physical reality, but if it had it would have cost an estimated $6 million plus - probably something close to $7 billion in today's money."
  ©: Public Domain: publicdomainreview.org
tags: #Columbus monument #Palacio

060g   Columbus -Emerald pendant

"The Spanish pendant designed in the shape of a caravel, is made up of emeralds, gold and enamel. The base of the caravel, which is its hull, is made up of a single carved transparent emerald of a deep herbal-green color, characteristic of emeralds originating from Colombia. The weight of this emerald is not known, but it appears to have been carved out of a larger rough emerald, in the shape of the hull of a ship. The emerald is set in a golden frame which also takes the shape of the hull.
The masts of the ship are made of gold and the sail of white enamel. Emeralds are also incorporated at the lower and upper ends of the sail and also in the cross above. Except for the white enamel used as the sail, the entire caravel is made out of emeralds and gold. This unique Caravel Pendant is one of the most prized pieces of jewelry in the Hermitage museum".
  ©: text: www.internetstones.com; photograph: Robert Schilder
tags: #Columbus #caravel #

060h   Columbus -Achille Guerra: 'Arrival of Columbus in America'

Achille Guerra -Arrival of Columbus in America Guerra, Achille (1832-1903) Title:"Arrival of Columbus in America" dim.: 80x136 cm
  ©: Robert Schilder, photographed in Hermitage Museum, Amsterdam. full painting: www.hermitagemuseum.org
tags: #Columbus #America #Achille #Guerra

060i   Columbus -Theodore de Bry 1592: 'Christopher Columbus'

Columbus der erste Erfinder der newen Welt. Theodore de Bry 1592: 'Christopher Columbus'
Bry, Theodor de, 1528-1598, engraver. 'Columbus the first discoverer of the New World'. 1594. Special Collections, University of Houston Digital Library.

for more on Theodore de Bry see Pinterest
  ©: PD digital.lib.uh.edu

tags: #Columbus #America #Theodore de #Brey

060j  Columbus -

Cristoph Columbus portrait Artist : Cristofano dell'ALTISSIMO (1525-1605) 'Portrait of Christopher Columbus' Date: 1556, oil on canvas Height: 59 cm (23.2 in). Width: 42 cm (16.5 in). Current location: Uffizi Gallery
  ©: Public Domain Wikimedia.org
tags: #portrait, #Columbus, Christofano dell'Altissimo

061a  Slave Trade -'the Slave Market', Gustave Boulander

Gustave Boulander, the Slave Market As a stark contrast this painting, dripping with romanticism, by Gustave Boulanger ´the Slave Market´, remarkebly made around the same time ...
  ©: Public Domain
tags: #slavery #Gustave Boulanger

061b  Slave Trade -handcuffs - Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam

handcuffs, Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam handcuffs, photographed in the Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #handcuffs #Scheepvaartmuseum #Amsterdam

061c  Slave Trade -slave whipp -Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam

whip, Scheepvaartmuseum Amsterdam Slave whipp, photographed in the Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
see more on Pinterest
tags: #slave #whipp #Scheepvaartmuseum #Amsterdam

061d  Slave Trade -slave yoke -Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam

yoke, Scheepvaartmuseum Amsterdam Slave whipp, photographed in the Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
see more on Pinterest
SOURCES: www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk
tags: #slave #yoke #Scheepvaartmuseum #Amsterdam

061e  Slave Trade Slave ship storage

slave ship storage slave ship storage
  ©:
tags: #slave #ship #Scheepvaartmuseum #Amsterdam

062   Slave trade; -21st century

slave trade in the 21st century International Day for the Abolition of Slavery - 2 December
"In the 19th century, the international community came together to declare slavery an affront to our common humanity. Today, governments, civil society and the private sector must unite to eradicate all contemporary forms of slavery, including forced labour. Together, let us do our utmost for the millions of victims throughout the world who are held in slavery and deprived of their human rights and dignity."
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Message for the International Day for the Abolition of Slavery2 December 2014

The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery focuses on eradicating contemporary forms of slavery, such as trafficking in persons, sexual exploitation, the worst forms of child labour, forced marriage, and the forced recruitment of children for use in armed conflict.

www.theguardian.com,   www.theguardian.com
  © image: Robert Schilder
tags: #slave #trade #Ban Ki Moon #anti #slavery #poster

062a  Slave trade -Belgian Congo stamp

Belgian Congo stamp   ©:
tags: #stamp #abolition #slavery belgian #Congo

063  Slave trade -'the Slave Ship' by J.M.W.Turner

´The Slave Ship or Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying - Typhoon Coming On´, by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter, watercolorist and printmaker
Captains of slave ships carrying people in chains from Africa across the Middle Passage into slavery in the New World would throw the sick and dying overboard. The captain and the owners could then collect insurance for the lost ´cargo´; there was no compensation for the lives of human beings lost to illness.
text from: ghpoetryplace.blogspot.nl (beautiful website!)
  painting ©: Public Domain, (now in Museum of Fine Arts Boston)
tags: #J. M. W. Turner #slave ship #slavery

064a  Slave trade -Slave Trade

caption: "East African enslaved people released from a dhow by HMS Daphne, 1 November 1868. These photographs were taken about 1868, off the east coast of Africa. They form part of a report from John Armstrong Challice, a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, working to abolish slavery in Zanzibar. Zanzibar did not abolish slavery until 1897.
Having been the largest slaving nation, Britain became a determined abolitionist power after 1833, using the Royal Navy to stop ships suspected of being slavers."
  ©: National Archives UK
tags: #slavery #Great Britain

064b   Slave trade -'Zong'

Zong Massacre on the 'Zong' - outrage against humanity
A graphic reminder of the atrocious conditions endured in the Transatlantic Slave Trade arrived in London. A replica of the 18th Century slave ship The Zong, which played a pivotal role in the eventual abolition of the trade. Photo Cecily Wilson.
  ©: www.jamaica-gleaner.com
tags: #slave #ship #zong

064c  Slave trade -Life on board slave ships

life on board slave ships Life on board slave ships: www.liverpoolmuseums.org
  ©: pordomoumagia.blogspot.nl
tags: #slave trade #ship #slavery #

064d  Slave trade -Life on board slave ships

life   ©: 3.bp.blogspot.com
tags: #slave trade #ship #slavery #

ref. # 065  sound of whales -Conscious Breath Adventures

A short recording of a chorus of singing humpback whales on the Silver Bank, Dominican Republic. There were so many whale songs overlapping that it was impossible to make a good estimated count.

 
 
 
 
 
 

A short recording of a chorus of singing humpback whales on the Silver Bank, Dominican Republic. There were so many whale songs overlapping that it was impossible to make a good estimated count.


 
 
 
 
  ©: www.ConsiousBreathAdventures.com
tags: #whale #sound

ref. # 065a  sound of whales -Roger Payne

Roger Payne In 1971, the journal Science published a surprising description of singing whales for the first time in the article Songs of Humpback Whales by Roger Payne and Scott McVay. These two biologists found that Humpback whales produce a series of beautiful and varied sounds for a period of 7 to 30 minutes and then repeat the same series with considerable precision. They called this performance 'singing', referring to each repeated series of sounds as a 'song'.
SOURCE: www.researchgate.net
  ©: zeppelinruc.wordpress.com
tags: #Whale #Roger #Payne

ref. # 065b  sound of whales -animal sounds made visible by Bell

animal sounds made visible by Bell 065b the art of memory: drawing sounds exploding bells ... animal sounds, made visible by bell's translator http://theartofmemory.blogspot.com/2010/06/drawing-sounds-exploding-bells.html   ©:
tags: 

ref. # 065c  sound of whales -Penguins Listening to the Gramophone During Shackleton's 1907-09 Antarctic Expedition

Penguins Listening to the Gramophone During Shackletons 1907-09 Antarctic Expedition Penguins listening to the gramophone during Shackleton's 1907-09 Antarctic expedition, from 'The Heart of the Antarctic' by Shackleton (1874-1922) published in 1909
source: www.irishtimes.com
  ©: From Paris magazine L'Illustration, October 1909
tags: 

ref. # 065d  sound of whales -the Oldest Song in the World

the Oldest Song in the World For fifteen years Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer puzzled over clay tablets relating to music including some excavated in Syria by French archaeologists in the early '50s. The tablets from the Syrian city of ancient Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra) were about 3400 years old, had markings called cuneiform signs in the hurrian language (with borrowed akkadian terms) that provided a form of musical notation. One of the texts formed a complete cult hymn and is the oldest preserved song with notation in the world. Finally in 1972, Kilmer, who is professor of Assyriology, University of California, and a curator at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology at Berkeley, developed an interpretation of the song based on her study of the notation.
© www.youtube.com tags:  Anne Draffkorn #Kilmer#

ref. # 065e  sound of whales -Darwin's original diagram of evolution

Darwin original diagram of evolution detail from the original diagram of evolution
origin of the species
charles darwin - ca. 1857
  ©: via: theartofmemory.blogspot.com
tags: #darwin

ref. # 065f  sound of whales -Whale crier of Hermanus (South Africa)

Whale crier of Hermanus Whale crier of Hermanus (South Africa)   ©:
tags: #whale #crier #Hermanus

065g  sound of whales -Science Magazine on Roger Payne

Science Magazine on Roger Payne Science Vol 173, Issue 3997 13 August 1971

SOURCES:
- SCIENCE magazine: "Songs of Humpback Whales" science.sciencemag.org
- "Musician and writer David Rothenberg is currently compiling the best whale songs ever recorded, a collection of which is to be released later this year by Important Records. Here he looks at the human history of whale song and asks "is their musical culture going downhill? Or is it on the rise? Can we humans even tell the difference?" http://www.thewire.co.uk
- Whale vocalisation: wikipedia.org
  ©: science.sciencemag.org
tags: #Roger #Payne #whale #song

ref. # 065h  sound of whales -Z.I.R.A.

Jim Nollman playing waterphone off western Canada with orcas (1979) Jim Nollman playing waterphone off western Canada with orcas (1979)
SOURCE: Zepelim: the inner reaches of Outsider Radio
  ©: zeppelinruc.wordpress.com
tags: #communication #music #waterphone #orca #nollman

066  sound of whales -Sound of Whales

photograph from the exhibition
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #whale #sound

067  Legendary Islands -Illuminated Manuscript Map of Cairo

Illuminated Manuscript Map of Cairo Illuminated Manuscript Map of Cairo, from Book on Navigation, Walters Ms. W.658, fol. 305b
Originally composed in 932 AH / 1525 CE and dedicated to Sultan Süleyman I ('The Magnificent'), this great work by Piri Reis (d. 962 AH / 1555 CE) on navigation was later revised and expanded. The present manuscript, made mostly in the late 11th AH / 17th CE century, is based on the later expanded version with some 240 exquisitely executed maps and portolan charts. They include a world map (fol.41a) with the outline of the Americas, as well as coastlines (bays, capes, peninsulas), islands, mountains and cities of the Mediterranean basin and the Black Sea. The work starts with the description of the coastline of Anatolia and the islands of the Aegean Sea, the Peloponnese peninsula and eastern and western coasts of the Adriatic Sea. It then proceeds to describe the western shores of Italy, southern France, Spain, North Africa, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, western Anatolia, various islands north of Crete, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus and the Black Sea. It ends with a map of the shores of the the Caspian Sea (fol.374a). This is a view of Cairo.

This image was created and is provided through a Preservation and Access grant awarded to The Walters Art Museum by the National Endowment for the Humanities, 2008-2010.
via: www.flickr.com
  ©: See this manuscript page by page at the Walters Art Museum website: art.thewalters.org
tags: #Walters Art Museum #Cairo #Piri #Reis

ref. # 068  Legendary Islands -Baltic Sea anomaly

There are many, many websites and articles about this, but this seems one of the more comprehensive:
  ©: www.worldthruth.tv
tags:  #baltic sea underwater #how deep is the ocean
See for ref. #067 (Legendary Islands) #235 and for ref. #068 (Atlantis) #236

ref. # 069  Whaling -Porto Pim Whale Factory

Antiga Fábrica da Baleia e Centro do Mar
Horta, Faial, Açores
(+351) 292 292 140
geral@oma.pt
www.oma.pt, facebook.com/oma.acores
  ©: OMA
tags: #whales #horta #faial

069a  Whaling -Porto Pim Whale Factory Museum

Antiga Fábrica da Baleia e Centro do Mar
Horta, Faial, Açores
(+351) 292 292 140
geral@oma.pt
www.oma.pt, facebook.com/oma.acores
photo   ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Porto Pim #whales #horta #faial

070  Whaling -Museu de Cachelotes e Lulas

useu de Cachelotes e Lulas Museu de Cachelotes e Lulas
Coleção Malcolm Clark
Avenida Machado Serpa
9950 Madalena
Pico, Açores
museudecacheloteselulas@cm-madalena.pt
www.facebook.com/pages/Museu-de-Cachelotes-e-Lulas
  ©: Museu de Cachelotes e Lulas
tags:  #Museu de #Cachelotes e #Lulas

070a  Whaling -Whaling Museum

Whaling Museum -Museu dos Baleeiros Museu dos Baleeiros (Regional Headquarters)
Rua dos Baleeiros, 13
P-9930-143 Lajes do Pico
Pico Azores
(+351) 292 679 340
museu.pico.info@azores.gov.pt
tags: 

070b  Whaling -'Girl on a Whaleship'

"This website, Laura Jernegan: Girl on a Whaleship, tells two stories, 'The Story of Whaling', which describes what happened on a 19th century whaling voyage and 'Laura's Story', the story of a young girl from Edgartown, Massachusetts who went with her family on a whaling voyage and kept a journal. The site also has several interactive features that you can explore, and a 'Dive Deeper' section that allows you to learn more and look at details in a different way"
  ©: www.girlonawhaleship.org
tags: #girl on a whaleship

071  Overfishing - What is Overfishing?

overfishing Overfishing occurs when more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction. Gathering as many fish as possible may seem like a profitable practice, but overfishing has serious consequences. The results not only affect the balance of life in the oceans, but also the social and economic well-being of the coastal communities who depend on fish for their way of life.
read more: WWF

Extensive article and links: overfishing.org

What can I do to help?
You can help stop overfishing.

Painting: (detail) Joseph Vernet (Avignon, 1714 - Paris, 1789) ´La Madrague ou la Pêche au thon´, 1755
  ©: www.musee-marine.fr/paris (photo: Robert Schilder 2014)
tags: #musee marine paris #overfishing

ref. # 071a   Overfishing - Overfishing

Afrika SCH 24 Scheveningen, a Dutch super trawler fishing 30 miles off the coast of Mauritania. Greenpeace is campaigning in West Africa for the establishment of a sustainable, low impact fisheries policy that takes into account the needs and interests of small-scale fishermen and the local communities that depend on healthy oceans.

"Despite subsidised reductions, the EU fishing fleet still has the capacity to fish two to three times the sustainable level. Between 2007 and 2013, the EU's European Fisheries Fund will have subsidised fishing and related industries with € 4.3 billion. Fuel for fishing vessels is exempt from energy taxes, and State aid and EU-funded fisheries partnership agreements with non-EU countries also serve to subsidise fishing fleets and the fishing industry across the European Union."
www.pewtrusts.org

Can We Help Stop Overfishing? you can
  ©: photo: Pierre Gleizes / Greenpeace
tags: #overfishing

ref. # 071b  Overfishing - Transhipment of fish at sea

Transhipment of fish at sea Transhipment of fish at sea in West Africa and a ban on the entry of seafood from such transhipments into the European market.
Environmental Justice Foundation's (EJF) Pirate Fishing Campaign

EJF investigations show that many industrial fishing vessels are out of control: fishing well inside exclusion zones, attacking local fishers, refusing to pay fines, covering their identification markings, using banned fishing equipment, transhipping fish illegally at sea, refusing to stop for fisheries patrols, bribing enforcement officers, fleeing to neighbouring countries to avoid sanctions, and committing labour violations.
  ©: www.theguardian.com
tags: #EJF #Sierra Leone #transhipment of fish

071c  Overfishing - Purse seiner

purse seiner off the coast of Peru NOAA About 400 tons (FOUR HUNDRED TONS) of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) are caught by a Chilean purse seiner off of Peru.
  ©: Image ID: fish2172, NOAA's Fisheries Collection 1997 Photographer: C. Ortiz Rojas  www.photolib
tags: #NOAA #purse #seiner

ref. # 072  Overfishing - Seaweed

"Seaweed offers perhaps the broadest range of minerals of any food found on earth, equal to those found in human blood.
Seaweed is an excellent source of the B-vitamin Folate, Magnesium, Iron, Iodine, Calcium, Phosphorous and the B-vitamins Riboflavin and Pantothenic acid. It also contains vitamins A, B1, C, E, and Protein.
In addition, seaweed contains significant amounts of lignans, which are plant compounds with cancer-protective properties. The most recent studies on seaweed revealed that its bioactive substances aid in reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, plus its ability to deal with free radicals that are the cause of cancer."
  ©: www.nutri-health.co.uk
tags: #seaweed
NB  In the English language we have done ourselves a disservice calling it "seaweed": weeds are something we do not want, seaweed implies something negative about the product. When trying to convince others to eat it, "sea plants" or "sea vegetables" may be more appropriate words to describe it.
Extensive article www.fao.org

ref. # 072a  Overfishing -Noordzee boerderij - North Sea Farm

Noordzee boerderij - North Sea Farm ´A new way of cooking´
"Sushi, soups and salades, straight from the North Sea to the kitchen table. That will be the future in a couple of years, according to the Stichting Noordzeeboerderij (North Sea Farm Foundation). They planted edible seaweed near the coast of the island of Texel (north of the Netherlands) and harvested the first crop last week of June. The seaweed grows on a large frame, floating one meter below the sea´s surface.
This is only the start, because they are allowed a ´pasture´ of a square kilometre with the possibility of growing shelfish at the same time.
Seaweed is more than just food, it is a part of for instance toothpaste, chocolatemilk and cosmetics. Besides that, it forms a safehaven for small fish and it is environment friendly. No need for land, fertilizer or precious sweet water."
  ©: the test is an intiative of Schuttelaar & Partners Consultancy (NL)
www.noordzeeboerderij.nl/en
tags: #Noordzee boerderij #North Sea Farm

ref. # 072b  Overfishing -'Fish oil made from GM plant to be saviour of the oceans'.

Fish oil made from GM plant to be saviour of the ocean Fish oil has been grown successfully on a British farm in a scientific breakthrough that could reduce the plundering of the oceans
A field trial in Hertfordshire has demonstrated that plants can be genetically modified to reproduce the nutrients found in oily fish that protect against heart disease and help infant brain development.
Scientists genetically modified camelina, an oilseed plant known as "false flax" to produce seeds containing the omega-3 fatty acids present in salmon, mackerel and herring.
  ©: Ben Webster (environment editor) in The Times 8/7/2015
tags: Fish Oil #GM #omega-3

ref. # 072c  Overfishing - Sustainable fisheries

Sustainable fisheries partnership "Sustainable management of fisheries cannot be achieved without an acceptance that the long-term goals of fisheries management are the same as those of environmental conservation"
- Daniel Pauly and Dave Preikshot

Fishers remove more than 77 billion kilograms (170 billion pounds) of wildlife from the sea each year. Scientists fear that continuing to fish at this rate may soon result in a collapse of the world's fisheries. In order to continue relying on the ocean as an important food source, economists and conservationists say we will need to employ sust´inable fishing practices.
  ©: education.nationalgeographic.com
tags: #sustainable fisheries

072d  Overfishing -Sustainable fisheries

"In the end, we will conserve only what we love; we will love only what we understand; and we will understand only what we are taught"
- Senegalese conservationist Baba Dioum,

  ©:Wikipedia

tags: #sustainable fisheries

ref. # 072e  2015 travel journal -Aquaponics

Aquaponics Aquaponics is the integration of recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics in one production system. In an aquaponic unit, water from the fish tank cycles through filters, plant grow beds and then back to the fish. In the filters, the fish wastes is removed from the water, first using a mechanical filter that removes the solid waste and then through a biofilter that processes the dissolved wastes. The biofilter provides a location for bacteria to convert ammonia, which is toxic for fish, into nitrate, a more accessible nutrient for plants. This process is called nitrification. As the water (containing nitrate and other nutrients) travels through plant grow beds the plants uptake these nutrients, and finally the water returns to the fish tank purified. This process allows the fish, plants, and bacteria to thrive symbiotically and to work together to create a healthy growing environment for each other, provided that the system is properly balanced.
  ©: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 2014
ISBN 978-92-5-108532-5 (print) E-ISBN 978-92-5-108533-2 (PDF)

tags: #Aquaponics

ref. # 073 -Saint Brendan

"St. Brendan's fame rests on the mythical adventure described in Brendan's Voyage, a 10th century romance of Brendan and a company of monks sailing the Atlantic Ocean to the Promised Land. One of the stories of the voyage relates that Brendan, wishing to celebrate Easter Mass, landed on a small island in the middle of the ocean. After celebrating Mass, Brendan and his companions built a fire on which to cook a meal and thus awakened the sleeping whale they had mistakenly identified as a small island. Terrified, the voyagers rushed to their ship and fled. Since then, St. Brendan has been associated with whales and large fish."

also newpagebooks.blogspot.nl
  ©: James Christensen
tags: #saint brendan #james christensen
See also ref. #059 (Toscanelli´s map)

073a  Saint Brendan -´The Brendan Voyage´

The Brendan Voyage 'The Brendan Voyage', cover of Tim Severin's book
The accounts of his voyages were well known in past times, but many are inclined to think it was all myth and make-believe.
But his voyage from Ireland to the North Americas has been reconstructed by British navigation scholar, Tim Severin, in 1976. He had meticulously worked to make sure that the leather skinned boat he had made was, for all intents and purposes, identical to the ´mythological´ boat, described in the 11th century book, ´Navigatio´, in which St. Brendan and the Irish monks crossed the North Atlantic centuries before the Vikings. He proved it could be done.
Severin sailed this boat from Ireland to Newfoundland via Iceland and Greenland, demonstrating the accuracy of its directions and descriptions of the places Brendan mentioned in his epic, and proving that a small boat could have sailed from Ireland to North America.
extensive article on Tim Severin and his other endeavours on Wikipedia
Pinterest

tags: #the brendan voyage #saint brendan #tim severin #James Christensen

ref. # 073b  Saint Brendan -'How Saint Brendan found Judas Iscariot'

Saint Brendan 'How Saint Brendan found Judas Iscariot', 'The Book of Saints and Heroes' by Mrs. Lang (Bringing Yesterday's Classics to Today's Children)
  ©: www.mainlesson.com
tags: #saint brendan #ireland

ref. # 073c  Saint Brendan -Patron of Sailers

Saint Brendan patron of Sailors ".. became famed for his voyages, particularly a seven-year journey to the Land of Promise, which he described in his epic saga Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis. It was tremendously popular in the Middle Ages and was translated into most European languages. Though scholars long doubted the voyage to the Promised Land he described in the Navigatio in the middle of the sixth century could have been to North America, as was sometimes claimed, some modem scholars now believe he may have done just that. In 1976-77, Tim Severin, an expert on exploration, following the instructions in the Navigatio, built a hide-covered curragh and then sailed it from Ireland to Newfoundland via Iceland and Greenland, demonstrating the accuracy of its directions and descriptions of the places Brendan mentioned in his epic.."
  ©: www.catholictradition.org
tags: #saint brendan #ireland

073d  Saint Brendan -  -An incident from the Life of St. Brendan

An incident from the Life of St. Brendan An incident from the Life of St. Brendan, in which the English moor their ship on an "island" which turns out to be a whale. The Bestiary is using this incident to illustrate whales and how big they can be. The English are still hearing about this incident up through the 16th century - Olaus Magnus puts a picture of it on the Carta Marina.
  ©: Bestiary - Cambridge MS Ii.IV.26 fol 54v
tags: saint #brendan, #bestiary, #

073e  Saint Brendan -  -Île San Borodon

map with Saint Borodon Island map with the possible location of Saint Brendan Island
  ©: CC https://blogcatedranaval.com

"Je fot savoir bon lai Breton,
Et de Merlin et de Foucon,
Del roi Artu et de Tristem,
Del chievre oil de St. Brendan".

link: PD Domenick DALY's extensive article on the Legend of Saint Brendan, via CELTIC REVIEW
tags: #saint #brendan, #borodon, #saint brendan island

ref. # 074  2015 travel journal -Doggerland

Doggerland "The Europe that was.
At the end of the last ice age, Britain formed the northwestern corner of an icy continent. Warming climate exposed a vast continental shelf for humans to inhabit. Further warming and rising seas gradually flooded low-lying lands. Some 8,200 years ago, a catastrophic relaese of water from a North American glacial lake and a tsunami from a submarine landslide off Norway inundated hwatever remained of Doggerland"

New set of islands built in the North Sea to connect UK with Europe and the rest of the world via high speed rail network.  Doggerland map
link: Reclaiming Doggerland doggerland.net

  ©: William E. McNulty and Jerome N. Cookson, NGM staff. Sources: Simon Fitch and Vincent Gaffney, University of Birmingham UK, North Sea Paleolandscapes Project.
www.abroadintheyard.com
tags: #doggerland #north sea #doggersbank

NB: 'dogger'  refers to a certain type of fishingboat

074a  2015 travel journal -Doggersland & North Sea Drainage II

North Sea Drainage Project North Sea Drainage Project to Increase Area of Europe
Huge dam towers 90 feet above the North Sea to form artificial coastline. (by comparison: Dutch famous 'Afsluitdijk' is 35 feet high ...)
If the extensive schemes for the drainage of the North Sea are carried out according to the plan illustrated above, which was conceived by a group of eminent English scientists, 100,000 square miles would be added to the overcrowded continents of Europe. the reclaimed land will be walled in with enormous dykes, similar tot he Netherlands Dykes, to protect it from the sea and the various rivers flowing into the North Sea will have their courses diverted to different outlets by means of canals.
  ©: Modern Mechanics nov. 1930
tags: #north sea drainage #modern mechanics

ref. # 074b  Wind energy -Horns Rev

"Horns Rev 1 comprises of 80 efficient wind turbines capable of producing 160 MW. The annual production of the wind turbines corresponds to the consumption of 150,000 households. Horns Rev 1 is located in the North Sea 14 kilometers west of Denmark."
  ©: www.hornsrev.dk/en
tags: #wind energy #denmark

ref. # 074c  Wind energy -Largest floating offshore wind farm

innovate.statoil.com nov. 2nd 2015 "Scotland set for world's largest floating offshore wind farm
The Scottish government has granted consent for the world's largest floating offshore wind farmto be developed off the coast of Peterhead

Winners announced for the Hywind Installation Challengeinnovate.statoil.com
On 7th Jul 2015 GE/Statoil launched the 2nd Open Innovation Challenge - "Reduced use of water in onshore operations".

  ©: For more information about this and future challenges and to contribute, please visit us again at innovate.statoil.com
tags: #wind energy #scotland #statoil

ref. # 075  Tidel energy - JAPAN

"The unique 'underwater floating type ocean current turbine system' will demonstrate power generation in a real ocean environment, in a project expected to continue until 2017," Toshiba explains. "The research work is expected to prove the viability of ocean energy power generation and to create the framework for an industry, and also to contribute to improved energy security for Japan."

  ©: motherboard.vice.com
tags: #tidal energy #japan

ref. # 075a  Tidel energy - Wales

"This planned power plant in Wales may look like the Guggenheim Museum but its benefits far outweigh the beauty: it will use the rise and fall of ocean tides to generate enough renewable electricity to power 155,000 homes for 120 years. When completed, the structure will produce electricity enough to displace more than a quarter million barrels of oil each year- while leaving virtually no carbon footprint.
Power plants have been generating electricity using the tides since 1966, but the Swansea project is the first to employ a radically new method of harnessing the natural forces. The secret lies in its nearly six-mile-long barrier wall that will enclose a huge amount of water in an artificial "tidal lagoon".
  ©:www.goodnewsnetwork.org
tags: #tidal energy #wales

076  Wind energy -Land Sailing

For more on land sailing, please also see number 249

Land sailing, also known as sand yachting or land yachting, is the act of moving across land in a wheeled vehicle powered by wind through the use of a sail. The term comes from analogy with (water) sailing. Historically, land sailing was used as a mode of transportation or recreation. Since the 1950s it has evolved primarily into a racing sport.

www.swaen.com/antique-map-of.php?id=17305

tags: #sailing

ref. # 076a  Wind energy -Sky sails propulsion

SkySails propulsion "The SkySails propulsion system consists of a large foil kite, an electronic control system for the kite and an automatic system to retract the kite. The system bears similarities to kitesurfing. The system was first tested on the Baltic Sea, before commercial implementation. The kites, which have an area of around 320 square metres (3,400 sq ft), can be flown at altitudes of 100-300 metres (330-980 ft). Because of the stronger winds at these heights, they receive a substantially higher thrust per unit area than conventional mast-mounted sails. It is possible that a ship equipped with the current SkySails could consume from 10 to 35% less fuel.[1] A conventional ship with a SkySail-system has two propulsion methods, making it a type of hybrid vehicle. SkySail kite propulsion from upper wind power is a traction use of high altitude wind power."
  ©: CC Wikimedia Theseus, Typ Rhein-M Date: 3 April 2011, Source: Reederei Wessels/Fotoflite, Author: Reederei Wessels
tags: #Sky sails propulsion #wind energy

ref. # 076b  Wind energy -Sky Sails - the next level

"Winds at high altitudes provide abundantly more energy than winds at surface level. Thus the use of energy-rich high-altitude winds represents the next generation of wind power. Large and fully automated kites are the key technology through which energy can be generated from high-altitude winds.
SkySails is the market and technology leader in the field of automated towing kite systems and the first company in the world that has succeeded in developing kite technology into an industrial application
  ©: www.skysails.info; www.skysails.info/english/power/
tags:  #SkySails #wind power
So you read a few items on this blog. What do you think? Any remarks or suggestions?? Let me know: robertschilder@gmail.com

ref. # 076c This € 50 Million Vertical Ship Will Revolutionize Ocean Exploration

This €50 Million Vertical Ship Will Revolutionize Ocean Exploration "The concept - a vertical ship-submarine hybrid - was designed to help mankind probe the ocean blue, 90% of which still remains unexplored. While the craft´s design has evolved immensely over the years, tweaked innumerable times to achieve optimal seafaring form, the final version - which vaguely resembles a nose-diving shark - measures in at 58 meters (roughly 190 feet), with 27 meters (four stories) above and 31 meters (six levels) below the waterline."
Read on: www.forbes.com

  ©: www.forbes.com

tags:  #ocean exploration

076d  Wind energy -STRANDBEEST

Theo Jansen (kinetic sculptor) wind powered sculptures which 'walk' on the beach are made from yellow plastic tubing.
www.strandbeest.com
youtube   ©: photo: Robert Schilder 2011
tags:  #Theo Jansen, #kinetic #art, #sculptor, #beach, #strandbeest

ref. # 077 Mesdag Panorama, the Hague

Mesdag Panorama, the Hague "... Panorama Mesdag
In 1879 Mesdag first made contact with a group of Belgian entrepreneurs who wanted to lay the foundations for a panorama under the name 'Society Anonyme du Panorama Maritime de la Haye'. The panorama was a much-loved visual attraction in this period, when there was no cinema and television to provide information and entertainment. The Society approached Mesdag to create a 'painting without borders', as panoramas were sometimes called at that time. Mesdag would receive a substantial fee and he had the right to select his own subject and collaborators. Mesdag regarded this offer as the unique opportunity to paint the greatest sea piece he would ever create and also to preserve Scheveningen for posterity.... ."
  ©:  www.mesdag.com

tags: #mesdag #panorama #the hague #seascape

078 -Stranded Whale

Whale stranded on the beach of Scheveningen

Much more on this subject #247

079 Vikings -'Viking ships arriving in Britain'

Viking ships arriving in Britain; English illuminated manuscript, ca. 1130 Viking ships arriving in Britain; English illuminated manuscript, ca. 1130.

"During the prosperous and slightly warmer, Viking Age, the rich resources of the North Atlantic (stretching from coastal Norway to the shores of eastern Canada) encouraged many to seek opportunities abroad, including the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland Islands. Here the goal was not raiding or even trading, but rather permanent settlement.

Farmers first and foremost, Vikings in the North Atlantic islands recreated the daily life of their homelands. They kept pigs and tended sheep, cattle and goats for needed wool, leather, meat and milk. Climate permitting, Norse grew crops such as peas and cabbage, but primarily harvested grains for producing bread and beer. Wild animals, especially sea mammals, supplemented their diet and provided skins, ivory and oil - important trade commodities back home.

In addition to being the fierce warriors of popular stereotype, Vikings were master craftsman, shrewd businessman, and fearless explorers. Their activities stimulated political changes in Europe and Russia; created lasting new societies in Iceland and Greenland; and led to the discovery of North America 500 years before Columbus." Pinterest
  ©: text: www.mnh.si.edu/vikings (with many interesting facts and images);  here is another great resource on (Viking) pictures:  the Granger collection, New York
tags: #vikings

ref. # 079a  Vikings -Yggdrasil

In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil is an immense tree that is central in Norse cosmology, in connection to which the nine worlds exist.

Yggdrasil is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Yggdrasil is an immense ash tree that is central and considered very holy. The gods go to Yggdrasil daily to assemble at their things. The branches of Yggdrasil extend far into the heavens, and the tree is supported by three roots that extend far away into other locations; one to the well Urõarbrunnr in the heavens, one to the spring Hvergelmir, and another to the well Mímisbrunnr. Creatures live within Yggdrasil, including the wyrm (dragon) Níõhöggr, an unnamed eagle, and the stags Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and DuraprOr.   ©: Wikipedia
tags: #Yggdrasil

ref. # 079b  Vikings -Viking Comics

  ©:
12 Viking comics
tags: 

ref. # 080  (reverse #079) eskimo art -´Carving of an Otter´

Carving of an Otter
"Possibly a child's toy. Carved, drilled Walrus ivory with inscribed lines. L. 4.5 in.

Provenance: The DeMenil Collection
The beauty of ivory has always made it a highly desired commodity. It is always white when carved, but as shown below, many pieces have been were unearthed from archeological excavations and are stained in rich hues of brown from minerals deposited over the centuries in the material's veined structure."
  ©: 2002, EskimoIvory.com
tags: #eskimo #ivory

ref. # 080a  (reverse #079) eskimo art -´Yup'ik Eskimo in shaman's outfit.´

  ©:
tags: #inuit #eskimo

ref. # 080b  (reverse #079) eskimo art -´Inuit Mask´

Yupik mask   ©: unknown
tags: #inuit #eskimo

081  (reverse #080) -eskimo -North Pole map

The frontpage of a magazine about astronomy and geography depicting a patriotic eagle, a five star map of the North Pole and motto ´ E Pluribus Unum´, which is latin for ´one made out of many´ (used on US coins, government, etc.)   ©: probably around 1902
tags:  #north pole #e pluribus unum

ref. # 081a  (reverse #079) vikings -

  ©:
tags: 

082  (reverse #079) vikings -'Norseman landing in Iceland'

H.A. Guerber - Norseman landing in Iceland Creator: from the book by H. A. Guerber (Hélène Adeline) (1909). 'Myths of the Norsemen from the Eddas and Sagas' 1909, after Oscar Wergeland's painting 1877
  ©: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyrbyggja_saga
tags: #Vikings #oscar wergeland #h.a.guerber

ref. # 083  (reverse #078) stranded whale - Herring

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 084  (reverse #077) monster - 'strandvonst'

  ©: caption: "d´een segget d´ander voort ...
tags: #scheveningen

For ref. #85 please go here

ref. # 086  (reverse #075) -Windenergy

  ©:
tags:  #windenergy

ref. # 087  (reverse #074) - facts and figures

  ©:
tags: 

088  (reverse #073) - St Brendan performing an Easter service on the back of a whale

Saint Brendan performing a service on the back of a whale Ketos. PLAUTIUS, NOVA TYPIS TRANSACTA NAVIGATIO (1621) showing St Brendan performing an Easter service on the back of a whale
St. Brendan's fame rests on the mythical adventure described in Brendan's Voyage, a 10th century romance of Brendan and a company of monks sailing the Atlantic Ocean to the Promised Land. One of the stories of the voyage relates that Brendan, wishing to celebrate Easter Mass, landed on a small island in the middle of the ocean. After celebrating Mass, Brendan and his companions built a fire on which to cook a meal and thus awakened the sleeping whale they had mistakenly identified as a small island. Terrified, the voyagers rushed to their ship and fled. Since then, St. Brendan has been associated with whales and large fish.
  ©: PD, text: www.swoyersart.com
tags: St. Brendan #Whale#nova Typis Transacta Navigatio

ref. # 089  (reverse #072) overfishing -

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 090  (reverse #071) overfishing -

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 091  (reverse #070) -SIBIL Whaling Factory

SIBIL Whaling Station
Rua do Castelo
9930-173 Lajes do Pico
cmlpico@mail.telepac.pt
www.municipio-lajes-do-pico.pt
(+351) 292 679 330
  ©: SIBIL Whaling Station
tags:  @

ref. # 092  (reverse #69) - Whales Azores

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 093  (reverse #68) -Legendary Islands

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 094  (reverse #67) -Legendary Islands

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 095  (reverse #066) -Sound of Whales

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 096  (reverse #065) -Sound of Whales

  ©:
tags: 

097  (reverse #063) -Argonauta Argo

Argonauta Argo Argonauta argo, also known as the greater argonaut, is a species of pelagic octopus belonging to the genus Argonauta. The female of the species, like all argonauts, creates a paper-thin eggcase that coils around the octopus much like the way a nautilus lives in its shell, hence the name Paper Nautilus.
The Chinese name for this species translates as "white sea-horse´s nest"
  ©: via Illustrations conchyliologiques (1842)
more on Wikipedia, www.BioLib.de GNU Free Document License.
tags: #Argonauta Argo

098  (reverse #061) -shrunken heads

mokomokai Major General Horatio Gordon Robley's collection of shrunken Maori heads from New Zealand. Many of these heads are still in collections worldwide.   ©: Mokomokai
tags: #shrunken #Maori #heads #Robley #Mokomokai

099  (reverse #062) -'Europe supported by Africa and America'

'Europe supported by Africa and America', engraving by William BLAKE, (1796)" The Dutch captured the British colony of SURINAME during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1667). Under the West India Company it was developed as a plantation slave society and became a primary destination for the Dutch slave trade. The brutal regime caused high mortality; despite the import of 300,000 slaves between 1668 and 1823, the population never grew beyond 50,000. 'Maroonage' became the major form of resistance. Fugitive slaves, or 'maroons', escaped inland to form permanent communities from where they waged a campaign of guerrilla warfare against the Dutch.
In 1774 the Scottish-Dutch soldier John Gabriel STEDMAN witnessed the brutal oppression of slaves during a campaign against the maroons, which he described in his Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam. The book, which included illustrations by William Blake, was adopted by abolitionists, though Stedman was thought to support reform rather than abolition.
This allegorical image is in the tradition of 'The Four Continents', in which the continents are depicted as female figures. Blake, the abolitionist, has included gold arm bands on the arms of Africa and America to symbolise their enslavement to the central figure of Europe. However, the fact that Europe is being physically supported by her companions suggests the possibility of a more equitable relationship."
  ©: text: collections.vam.ac.uk
  ©: picture: PD
tags: #Blake #slavery #suriname #Stedman

099a  (reverse #062) -Justice Punch (12 September 1857)

This is a cartoon that Punch published in response to the Sepoy Mutiny in India. The basic point of view here is that Britain is completely in the right and that it must take revenge against the Indians.
  © text: www.enotes.com
  ©: Scanned image by Philip V. Allingham: www.victorianweb.org
tags: #Punch

ref. # 100  (reverse #058) -Imagination: 'Jonah thrown in the sea'

Jonah thrown in the Sea Creator: Hieronimus / Anthonius Wierix, design: Maarten de Vos, Date of creation: 1500/1700. Temporal: 16e/17e century. Technique: gravure; II/II Object: print. Size: 180 x 250 mm. Source: L 1963/60 b (PK) (prent, gravure; II/II), 16th century graphic art from the Northern and Southern Netherlands.
  ©: Prentenkabinet Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen.
url: www.geheugenvannederland.nl
tags: #Jonah and the Whale #Museum Boymans van Beuningen

100a  (reverse #058) -Imagination: 'Jonah Cast up by the Whale'

Jonah and the Whale Philips Galle, Dutch (Haarlem 1537 - 1612 Antwerp) After Maarten van HEEMSKERK, Netherlandish (1498 - 1574) Jonah and the Whale. Engraving On Paper, 8 1/8 x 9 5/8 in. 20.64 x 25.08 cm.
  ©: PD New Bedford Whaling Museum, Kendall Collection and www.harvardartmuseums.org, METmuseum.org

Please go here for the full set of prints: www.oldmasterprint.com by Hieronymus Wierix
tags: #Jonah and the whale #New Bedford Whaling Museum

100b  (reverse #058) -Imagination: -'Jonah und der Wal'

Jonah und der Wal "Jonas und der Wal, Illustration von einer Bibel, graviert von Gabriel BODENEER (1673-1766) (Sepiastich). Merian, Mattaus II (1621-87) (nachher). Privatsammlung, die Stapleton Sammlung"
  ©: PD
tags: #Jonah #Wal

101  (reverse #061) -Slavery: -'Illustrations de Narratio regionum Indicarum per Hispanos quosdam devastattarum' - Jean Théodore de Bry

Illustration by de Bry to 1598 edition of Las Casas Illustration by de BRY to 1598 edition of Las Casas. Following text copyright the Dean and Chapter of Worcester Cathedral (UK)
"Theodore de Bry, the publisher of our book, was a citizen of Liège (in modern day Belgium) who, as a protestant, had been treated roughly by the Spanish authorities, and forced to flee with his family, eventually settling in Frankfurt (via Strasbourg, Antwerp and London). A gifted engraver, his main business was to provide illustrations of exotic locations for travel books. He would have had to rely much on his imagination, as he never left Europe. Yet the text written by Bartolomé de las Casas on New World atrocities provided him with more than enough information to make these graphic, arresting pictures."
"The unpopularity of the Spanish in North Western Europe had led to a huge surge in the publication of tracts and diatribes against them - portraying Spaniards as cruel, bigoted and un-Christian. So great was this demonization of the Spanish nation and its people through propaganda that later (Spanish) historians labelled it as 'La Leyenda Negra', or 'The Black Legend'. Could de Bry have been part of this movement? Subconsciously, he certainly was - 'The Black Legend did tend to focus on Spanish colonial atrocities, and de Bry was one of the best sources for this. Whether or not he was motivated by the treatment he himself had received at Spanish hands, however, remains a matter for debate."
  ©: text: worcestercathedrallibrary.wordpress.com

  ©: image :PD, view many more on: Pinterest
tags: #Las Casas de #Bry #Black Legend atrocity

ref. # 102  (reverse #059) -Columbus: Arawak / Taíno indians

Arawak indians and Columbus "... As far as I know, the only case in history of where complete and total genocide was carried out was here on the island of Hispaniola. The entire GENS, the whole people of the native Americans of the Arawak/Taino people were wiped out ..." (Bob Corbett, The History of Haiti)
read more: www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/100.html
  © library BNS BCS
tags: #Arawak #Taino #Haiti #genocide #Columbus

102a  (reverse #059) -The Columbus Letter

the Columbus Letter A representation of Columbus' landing on an island in the Bahamas, with caption 'Concerning the recently discovered islands in the Indies sea'. Note portion of land labeled 'Insula hyspana'. This illustration appears in the [Basel:] I.B. [Johann Bergmann, de Olpe] 1494 edition (Goff V-125).
"Christopher Columbus. Epistola de insulis nuper inventis. (preceded by:) Carolus Verardus. Historia Batica. Basel: Johannes Bergmann de Olpe, 1494. Second Basel edition of Columbus, third edition of Verardus.
209x150mm. 36 leaves. 6 woodcut illustrations by the Master of Haintz Narr.
Provenance: Guglielmo Libri Carucci; Schweinfurt, Otto Schäfer collection".
Columbus's description of his first voyage first appeared in print in a Spanish edition published in Barcelona in 1493. Within four years it had gone through fifteen known editions, including seven Latin editions, one German edition, a paraphrase in Italian verse in five editions, and a second Spanish edition, Valladolid, about 1497. These fifteen different editions were products of presses scattered in ten cities across Europe.
this text: Rare Book Collections @ Princeton
This is the 'Columbus Letter', a printed version of the letter Columbus wrote to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella immediately after returning from his first voyage in March 1493, announcing the success of his 'enterprise' to the 'Islands of the India Sea'. The electrifying news was quickly disseminated by means of copies of the letter printed in Barcelona, Rome, Paris, Antwerp, and Basel, with no less than eleven editions produced by the end of 1493.
The Basel printing, of which this is the second edition, contains illustrations in the form of stylized, highly imaginative small woodcut images. These portray "artist's conceptions" of the Columbus landing, naked natives, and 'newly discovered' islands, bearing no resemblance to their actual appearance. They are, nevertheless, the first printed images of the New World. **Note: clicking this text, takes you to OML's Columbus Letter web site.** Item Title: De Insulis nuper in mari Indico repertis In laudem Serenissi mi Ferdinandi Hispania regis Bethi= cae & regni Granatae obsidio... Page Title: De insulis nuper in mari Indico repertis Insula hyspana [Hispaniola] Item Authorities: Columbus, Christopher (Author) | Verardi, Carlo (1440 -1500) (Author) Region: Titlepage / Frontispiece | Hispaniola/Saint Dominique (part of) Barcode: 7325 Image No: 7325.0070 Accession No: OS-1494-1 Lc Call No: PA8585.V36 C6 1494 In Ursus: N www.oshermaps.org/map/7325.0070
In: De Insulis in mari Indico nuper inuentis (Basel: Bergmann de Olpe, 1494) Osher Collection
  © picture: Robert Schilder 2016 at the TEFAF Maastricht,
tags: #letter # #hispagnola #Columbus

103b  (reverse #058) -Imagination: -'Moby Dick'

Moby Dick Gustave Dore Moby Dick´s final chase: "Moby Dick swam swiftly round and round the wrecked crew"
Pinterest

  ©: PD
tags: #Moby Dick #Gustave Dore

104  (reverse #057) -Imagination: -Algeria poster

L´Algerie Comique & Pittoresque 1884
M. Jules Verne "Allant recueillir auw bonnes sources des renseignements authentiques sur le monde sous-marin.
Cover of L'Algerie Magazine, June 15, 1884. The text reads "M. Jules Verne: going to the best sources for authentic information on the underwater world."   ©: PD Wikipedia

C´était le dimanche 15 juin 1884. Jules VERNE voyage en Algérie pour la deuxième fois et la presse algérienne couvre l'évènement, en particulier lors de son passage è Oran. De nombreux écrivains et artistes orientalistes, tout au long du XIXe siècle, explorent l´Afrique du Nord. L´Algérie accueille de très nombreux voyageurs curieux de découvrir ce pays récemment conquis par la France.
Cette caricature de "l'Algérie comique et pittoresque" témoigne du très grand succès de Jules VERNE à la fin du XIXe siècle. Ce journal est significatif d'une presse très riche et variée en Algérie. Le CDHA possède la collection du numéro 1 au 53. Ce journal a été publié à Oran, il y aurait eu 65 numéros entre 1883 à 1884."
Texte: ©: www.cdha.fr

tags: #jules verne #cdha

104a  (reverse #057) -Imagination: -'Vingt Mille Lieues Sous Les Mers'

Vingt Mille Lieues Sous Les Mers" Vingt Mille Lieues Sous Les Mers
2e Carte par Jules Verne
  ©: PD tags: #jules verne #

105  (reverse #054) -about Imagination

imagination quotes "Imagination, also called the faculty of imagining, is the ability to form new images and sensations in the mind that are not perceived through senses such as sight, hearing or other senses."
  ©: en.wikipedia
"Imagination is quite possibly a uniquely human ability. In essence, it allows us to explore ideas of things that are not in our present environment, or perhaps not even real."
  ©: www.psychologytoday.com
"In Aristotle, the imagination bridges the gap between 'images' and 'ideas", implying that rational thought takes place in the form of images, and are stored and combined in the imagination."
  ©: uchicago.edu
"Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand."
  ©: Albert Einstein
"How we perceive the world around us is affected by our imagination, to a much greater degree than we perhaps realize,"
  ©: researchers at the Karolinska Institute explained in the journal Current Biology.
"The thoughts that emerge 'in our head' can alter our actual perception."
  ©: Christian Nordqvist - Medical News Today
tags: #imagination #quotes

106  (reverse #054) -Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius -Mare Liberum Hugo de Groot (Hugo GROTIUS): 'Mare Libero' 1633
"In The Free Sea, Grotius formulated the new principle that the sea was international territory and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade. The disputation was directed towards the Portuguese Mare clausum policy and their claim of monopoly on the East Indian Trade. Grotius wrote the treatise while being a counsel to the Dutch East India Company over the seizing of the Santa Catarina Portuguese carrack issue."
Wikipedia

more here: iurisdictio-lexmalacitana.blogspot.nl

"In a later chapter from 'De jure praedae' he published 'MARE LIBERUM' ('The Free Sea') and thus developed the first concept of a global community. This was based on the idea that the sea had to be accessible to all as to be able to communicate between each other. "
www.de-paula-lopes.nl
  ©: PD
tags: #Hugo, de#Groot, #Grotius

107  (reverse #055) -Abraham Ortelius' map of Utopia

Abraham Ortelius' map of Utopia Abraham ORTELIUS (1527-1598) map of Utopia (1595)   ©: Wikipedia (source: users.nsula.edu
tags: #Utopia

107a  (reverse #056) -Thomas Morus -Utopia

Nicolas Gueudeville Utopia Source: Nicolas GUEUDEVILLE 'Idée d´une réune république heureuse: ou L´Utopie de Thomas Morus Amsterdam: François l´Honoré, 1730, 93
Excerpt from Utopia, Book 2. ´Description of the island of Utopia´, Cayley, Arthur, the Younger, ed. Memoirs of Sir Thomas More, &c.. Vol II. London: Cadell and Davis, 1808. 55-57.

Interesting is this: nowhereisland.org
  ©: PD
tags: #Utopis #Thomas Morus #Nicolas Gueudeville

ref. # 108  (reverse #053) -Slap & DNA

  ©:
tags: 

109  (reverse #052) -'Sails of the Past'

Ballou's pictorial drawing room Companion
Representation of maritime craft of the various nations of the world.
see also: www.gonautical.com
  ©: 'Library of Congress'
tags:  boats; #Library of Congress

ref. # 110  (reverse #051) -'The Many Lives of Ned Coxere'

The Many Lives of Ned Coxere An illustration from Ned Coxere's memoir of a life at sea
beautiful story - interesting read
  ©: via the Appendix by Alexis Harasemovitch Truax(© text and picture sLibrary of Congress)
tags:  #man of war; Ned Coxere

ref. # 111  (reverse #050) - Napoleon at Saint Helena

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 112  (reverse #049) - Saint Helena

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 113  (reverse #48) -Safety

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 114  (reverse #47) - Anatomy of a Sailor

 



 


  ©: unknown
tags: #Anatomy of a Sailor

114a  (reverse #47) -Daniel Defoe's 'Robinson Crusoë'

illustration from the book (1719). English writer 1660 - 1731

 



  ©: unknown
tags: #Robinson Crusoe #Daniel Defoe

- CLICK THE SMALL PICTURES FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW -

115  (reverse #46) - Discovery of the Magellen Sea

Discovery of the Magellan Sea by Theodor de Bry "A navigator (Magellan) sits on the prow of the ship, facing left in profile. Sea monsters are visible in the waters at left and right. At right a figure, seated on a rock, is forcing an arrow down his throat." text ©: www.learninglab.si.edu
Discovery of the Magellen Sea´ 1594, made and published by Theodor de Bry, 1528-1598, engraver. Contributor Johann Feyerabend, 1550-1599, printer
  ©: PD digital.lib.uh.edu
www.geheugenvannederland.nl
more info here: www.britishmuseum.org
tags: #Theodor de Bry #Magellan

ref. # 115a  (reverse #47) - Willem Schouten de Hoorn

Description of the New Route to the South of the Strait of Magellan Discovered and Set in the Year 1616 by Dutchman Willem Schouten de Hoorn
"In June 1615, Dutch navigators Jacob Le MAIRE (circa 1585 - 1616) and Willem Corneliszoon SCHOUTEN (circa 1567 - 1625) set out in two ships, the 'Eendracht' and the 'Hoorn', from the Dutch port of Texel. Their goal was to find a new route to the Moluccas Islands, Europe's main source of pepper in the lucrative spice trade with the East Indies, and in so doing avoid the trade monopoly of the Dutch East Indies Company. They sailed south of the Strait of Magellan and on January 24, 1616, discovered a new passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans: a strait about 13 kilometers wide between Tierra del Fuego and what they called Staten Land (present-day Isla de los Estados, Argentina). The passage came to be called Le Maire Strait. Several days later, Le Maire and Schouten became the first Europeans to round the extreme southern point of South America, known for its storms and heavy seas, which they named Cape Horn in honor of Schouten's birthplace, the city of Hoorn. This map of Le Maire Strait is from the French edition of Schouten's journal of the voyage, Journal ou description du merveillevx voyage de Guillaume Schovten, hollandois natif de Hoorn, fait en ann&eeacute;es 1615, 1616 & 1617 (Journal or description of the marvelous voyage of Willem Schouten, a Dutch native of Hoorn, made in the years 1615, 1616, and 1617), which was published in Amsterdam in 1619".
  ©: World Digital Library
tags: #Strait; #Magellan; #Schouten; #le Maire Strait; #Hoorn

ref. # 116  (reverse #45) - Death of Magellan

Death of Magellan "Death of Magellan on the Philippine island of Mactan. From Levinus Hulsius's Sechster Theil, kurtze, warhafftige Relation vnnd Beschreibung der wunderbarsten vier Schiffahrten . . . (Frankfurt, 1626). [Rare Books Division]"
libweb5.princeton.edu

"Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice... an Indian hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the Indian's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all rushed themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off..."
  ©: "The Death of Magellan, 1521," EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2001).
tags: #Magellan

117  (reverse #044) Pacific - ´Tahiti´

Resolution and Adventure in Matavi Bay by William Hodges etching after ´Resolution´ and ´Adventure´ with fishing craft in Matavai Bay, painted by William Hodges in 1776, shows the two ships of Commander James Cook's second voyage of exploration in the Pacific at anchor in Tahiti.
  ©: PD
tags:  #James Cook #Tahiti #Matavai Bay #resolution #Adventure

117a  (reverse #044) Pacific - Dodo

Dodo and Smew Raphus cucullatus, Mergellus albellus
Dodo and Smew from a 1627 painting misattributed to Jan Goeimare and Jan Davidszoon de Heem (actually by Gillis Claeszoon de Hondecoeter 1575/1580–1638, in the collection of Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland, at Syon House. Probably a partial copy or derivative of de Hondecoeter's painting Perseus and Andromeda with a Dodo and seashells, and ultimately based on Roelant Savery's 1626 sketch of three dodos.
  ©: PDWikipedia
tags: #dodo #pacific ocean

ref. # 117b  (reverse #044) Pacific -

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 118  (reverse #043) - rounding Cape Horn

the 'Garthsnaid'-rounding Cape horn in 1920
"Garthsnaid was a three-masted steel barque built as Inversnaid 1892 by A McMillan & Son Dumbarton (yard No 313) for her first owner George Milne & Co, Aberdeen. Sold 1916 to Marine Navigation Co of Canada Ltd, Montreal and renamed (1918?) in Garthsnaid. Dismasted 1923 seventy miles south of Gabo Island, then towed to Melbourne and converted into a coal hulk with many Australian and New Zealandian owners. Scrapped in 1938. Dimensions: length x beam x depth = 238 x 36.2 x 21.6 ft (72.5 x 11 x 6.6 m) and tonnage: 1418 tons (later 1318 NRT)" via Wikipedia
  ©: This image has been digitised by John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, the image looks like the same collection as Wikimedia
tags: #CapeHorn; #Garthsnaid

ref. # 119  (reverse #042) - delftse jongen

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 120  (reverse #041) - pollution

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 121  (reverse #040) - houtsnede

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 122  (reverse #039) - hokusai

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 123  (reverse #038) - 1421 China discovered America before Columbus

1421 China discovered America before Columbus A controversial Chinese map argued by some to be from 1418 ...

"The Chinese voyage to America theory was popularized by British amateur historian Gavin Menzies in his 2002 book entitled "1421: the Year China Discovered America." The controversial, bestselling work claims that Chinese admiral Zheng He reached the Americas more than 70 years prior to Christopher Columbus' famous voyage. ..."
  ©: www.livescience.com
tags: #1421 #china #discovery #america

124  (reverse #037) -Grand Tartar Cham or Emperor of China

East-India Company Title: '[Frontispiece] An embassy sent by the East-India Company, of the United Provinces to the Grand Tartar Cham or Emperor of China delivered at Pekin by Peter de Goyer and Jacob de Keyzer A 1655'
"The German 1666 title page (after the Dutch original) was rendered into English a couple of years later as: 'An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces, to the Grand Tartar Cham, emperor of China: delivered by their excellencies Peter de Goyer and Jacob de Keyzer, at his imperial city of Peking wherein the cities, towns, villages, ports, rivers, &c. in their passages from Canton to Peking are ingeniously described by John Nieuhoff; also an epistle of Father John Adams, their antagonist, concerning the whole negotiation; with an appendix of several remarks taken out of Father Athanasius Kircher; Englished and set forth with their several sculptures by John Ogilby 1673'"

The German version of the drawing (in the book 'SAIL -in 80 pages around the World') is quite different from the English gravure as seen here! Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg

  ©: "Based on the date of publication, this material is presumed to be in the public domain.| For information on re-use see
tags: #china #east india company #OIC #universitaetsbibliothek heidelberg

124a  (reverse #031) - VOC logo

VOC logo Illustrations from 'The Six Voyages of John Baptista Travernier 1678'   ©:
tags:  #voc logo

ref. # 125  (reverse #035) - 'Biodiversity Heritage Library'

"Naaukeurige en uitvoerige beschryving van kaap de Goede Hoop;. Amsterdam" :By B. Lakeman,1727.
biodiversitylibrary.org/page/22358477
  ©: www.flickr.com

tags: #south africa, #natural history, #cape of good hope

ref. # 125a  (reverse #035) - 'Anglerfish'

Anglerfish - Jared Illustrations "Anglerfish" by Jared Illustrations 2012
  ©: jaredillustrations.ch

tags: #Jared Illustrations #Anglerfish

126  (reverse #035) - 'Merrymakers in a Mussel at Sea'.

De Mosselschelp, Johann Theodor de Bry, Pieter van der Heyden, 1596
Theodor de Bry, also called Dietrich de Bry, Flemish Theodoor de Bry, or Dirk de Bry (born 1528, Liége [now in Belgium] - died March 27, 1598, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]), Flemish-born German engraver and editor.
De Bry fled the Spanish persecution of Flemish Protestants and lived in Strassburg (Strasbourg) from 1570 to 1578 and then in Frankfurt am Main, where he established an engraving and publishing business. He twice visited London, where he executed such works as 12 plates for The Procession of the Knights of the Garter and another 34 plates for The Funeral of Sir Philip Sydney. He met the English geographer Richard Hakluyt, with whose assistance he collected materials for a finely illustrated collection of accounts of voyages and travels, Collectiones peregrinationum in Indiam orientalem et Indiam occidentalem (1590-1634; "Collected Travels in the East Indies and West Indies"), which was continued by his sons Johann Theodor de Bry (1561-1623) and Johann Israel de Bry (died c. 1611) but not completed until 1634 by Matthäus Merian the Elder.
text: www.britannica.com,   image also on Pinterest

  ©: PD See also www.rijksmuseum.nl for a slightly different version.
tags: #Theodor de Bry #postcard

ref. # 126a  (reverse #036) -'Réel et fantastique'

Physica animalium Physica animalium, XVIIe siècle. Manuscrit, dessins colorés (20 x 28,6 cm, oblong) BNF, Manuscrits, néerlandais 55, f. 2 bis
L´image est surprenante au début d´un traité scientifique. Consacré aux poissons et mollusques, l´ouvrage est orné de dessins colorés accompagnés des noms vernaculaires en flamand.
  ©: expositions.bnf.fr

tags: #sea monster #Physica animalium

127  (reverse #032) - 'Geography of the Heavens'

Elijah Burritt Geography of the Heavens Elijah BURRITT (1794-1838) American astronomer. Burritt's atlas is composed of six celestial maps, including two hemispheres (centered on the equatorial poles) read more www.lib.umich.edu

  ©: images: telescop.ucoz.ru
tags: #Burritt #geography #map astronomy #astrology

128  (reverse #034) - Cape of Good Hope

Cape of Good Hope H. Kobell jr. Artist: Simon FOKKE, 1750-1784. Copperplate. "Cape of Good Hope" (South Africa) . In the foreground, a frigate, with a flag of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East India, releases a gun salute. Company. Caption: 'Reede van Kaap de Goede Hoop'.

Different source: 1978-145-b (collectie scheepsafbeeldingen), Fries Scheepvaart Museum

  ©: PD, geheugenvannederland.nl
tags: #Cape of Good Hope #Dutch East India Company

128a  (reverse #034) -

  ©: PD,target="_blank">
tags: #Cape of Good Hope #Dutch East India Company

129  (reverse #033) - 'Adamastor'

Adamastor Azulejo 'Azulejo' (glazed tiles) on a terrasse of the Palace Hotel de Buçaco
  ©: PD Wikpedia by 'Concierge.2C'
tags: #adamastor

ref. # 129a  (reverse #033) - Adamastor

Adamastor Five days after the stop in the Bay of St. Helena, comes Vasco da Gama at Cape of Storms and is surprised by a dark cloud "so fearful and charged" to put in the Portuguese hearts a big "fear" and takes Vasco da Gama to evoke the very Almighty God.
It was the appearance of the giant Adamastor, a mythological figure created by Camões to mean all the dangers, storms, shipwrecks and "Damnations of all sorts" that the Portuguese had to face and overcome in their journeys.   ©: unknown; more info here: oslusiadas.no.sapo.pt

'Os Lusíadas', poema epico . Nova edição correcta, e dada á luz, por Dom Ioze Maria de Souza-Botelho.
CAMÕES, Luís [Vaz] de.
Published by Paris, Officina Typographica de Firmin DIDOT, (1817) From: Richard C. Ramer Old and Rare Books (New York, NY, U.S.A.) est. US$ 15,000.00
LIGNON engraved the frontispiece portrait of Cam&otile;es after a design by Gérard, while Forsell (after Dessenne) engraved Camões in the gruta named for him in Macau. The remaining 10 plates were engraved by Massard, Oortman, Henri Laurent, Bovinet, Pigeot, Toschi, Forster, and Richomme after designs by DESSENNE (3) and FRAGONARD (7 -including apparently this gravure)

Aparição do Gigante Adamastor (Canto V, 49).
Gravura de Fragonard para a edição de Os Lusíadas do Morgado de Mateus.

tags: #Adamastor #Os Luciadas #Camoes #Vasco da Gama

ref. # 129b  (reverse #033) - Vasco da Gama at Cape of Good Hope

Vasco da GAMA and his crew espy the Cape of Good Hope for the first time. A depiction painted by the Portuguese artist CONDIEXA (1905). Location: Musee Militar
"Central to the story is Vasco da Gama's epoch-making voyage to India (1497-1498) and is based on the logbook kept by Álvaro VELHO on board the caravel São Rafael."
  ©: adamastor.pdf with much more information
tags: #Vasco da Gama #Cape of Good Hope, #Adamastor #Conxeica

130  (reverse #031) - 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner'

The mariner up on the mast in a storm. One of the wood-engraved illustrations by Gustave DORÉ of the poem.

'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner' (originally The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major poem by the English poet Samuel Taylor COLERIDGE, written in 1797-98 and published in 1798 in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads.

"Water, water, every where,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink.

The very deep did rot - Oh Christ!
That ever this should be.
Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs,
Upon the slimy sea."

Go for the full poem www.poetryfoundation.org or ebooks.adelaide.edu.au

... "With sloping masts and dipping prow,
As who pursued with yell and blow
Still treads the shadow of his foe,
And forward bends his head,
The ship drove fast,
loud roared the blast,
And southward aye we fled...."

  ©: public domain Wikipedia more info here: british library
tags: #Coleridge #Gustave Doree #ancient #mariner

131  (reverse #030 -'King Manuel's dream of the rivers Ganges and Indus'

"... CAMÕES has the Indus and the Ganges appear to the Portuguese king Manuel in a dream, in the guise of wise old men who urge him to subjugate the people of India - whereupon the epic's king decides to prepare a fleet for the Indian voyage under the command of Vasco da Gama..."
google books; 'In the World Interior of Capital' by Peter Sloterdijk

Sonho profético de D. Manuel com os rios Ganges e Indo. Numa edição de Os Lusíadas.
Date: 1880
Source: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
  ©: Wikipedia
tags: #King Manuel #Portugal #Os Luciadas

ref. # 132  (reverse #029) -´Os Lusíadas´

Os Lusiadas Cyril COETZEE, 'T'kama-Adamastor'. Oil on canvas, (1999), 8,64 x 3,26 meters. William Cullen library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

'Os Lusíadas', usually translated as 'The Lusiads', is a Portuguese epic poem by Luís Vaz de CAMÕES.
Written in Homeric fashion, the poem focuses mainly on a fantastical interpretation of the Portuguese voyages of discovery during the 15th and 16th centuries. Os Lusìadas is often regarded as Portugal's national epic, much in the way as Virgil´s Aeneid was for the Ancient Romans, as well as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey for the Ancient Greeks. It was first printed in 1572, three years after the author returned from the Indies. (Wikipedia)

´Os LusÍdias´, by Luís de CAMÕES Project Gutenberg
  ©: painting Cyril Coetzee
tags:  #Cyril Coetzee #Os Lusiadas #Adamastor

- CLICK ON THE SMALL PICTURES TO SEE AN ENLARGED VERSION -

ref. # 133  (reverse #028) - African seafarers

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 134  (reverse #027) -African seafarers

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 135  (reverse #026) -Two Fishes

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 136  (reverse #025) -Arab

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 137  (reverse #024) - Noah islam

  ©:
tags: 

138  (reverse #023) -'le Déluge'

Gustave Doree la Deluge "English: 'The Deluge', Frontispiece to Doré's illustrated edition of the Bible. Based on the story of Noah's Ark, this shows humans and a tiger doomed by the flood futilely attempting to save their children and cubs.
Français : 'Le Déluge', Frontispice de l'édition illustrée par Gustave Doré de la Bible. Basé sur l'histoire de l'Arche de Noé, la gravure montre des humains et un tigre tentant en vain de sauver leur progéniture.
Date; The first edition was 1866. This edition is probably from about that time - may well be a first edition - but in any case is certainly not later than 1900 or so.
Source The Holy Bible: Containing the Old and New Testiments, According to the Authorised Version. With Illusrations by Gustave Doré. (Cassell / Company, Limited: London, Paris & Melbourne) Author Gustave Doré (1832-1883) The "Pannemaker" in the lower right refers to Adolphe François Pannemaker (1822-1900) one of Doré's assistants in turning his art into a full-fledged engraving, and a reasonably notable engraver in his own right."
  ©: PD Wikipedia
tags: #le Deluge #the flood #Gustave Doree

139  (reverse #022) -'the Argonauts'

The Argo Navis constellation from Uranographia by Johannes Hevelius. The view is mirrored following the tradition of celestial globes, showing the celestial sphere in a view from "outside".
Date: 1690, Source: 'Atlas Coelestis'. Johannes Hevelius drew the constellation in 'Uranographia', his celestial catalogue in 1690. Author Johannes Hevelius   ©: Wikipedia
tags: #Argonauts #Johannes Hevelius

ref. # 139a  (reverse #022) -'Naglfar' or' the Argonauts'

Anselm KIEFER is a storyteller. Books often feature, especially lead books like 'Naglfar'. On the topbook of 'Naglfar' rests a warship. Fingernail clippings imitate the lapping of the waves. The books refer to knowledge, but the material from which they are made raises questions. Are these literally weighty tomes whose knowledge is no longer accessible? Is knowlegde drowning in an ocean? And so is all knowledge corroding? After all the books are damaged.
The title refers to the Icelandic saga of 'Naglfar' or 'nailship' used by mythological giants to sail to Midgard and to fight in Ragnarok, the ultimate destruction of the gods. With Kiefer the Viking ship becomes a contemporary warship. Because war is of all times."
  ©: phot Anselm Kiefer, text: 'the sea' exhibition in Ostend 23.10.2014-19.4.2015 dezee-oostende.be

tags: #Argonauts #Mu.zee

ref. # 139b  (reverse #022) -'the Argonauts'

The Argonauts constellation "This large constellation was one of the 48 constellations described by the ancient astronomer Ptolemy in his 'Almagest'. It is the ship which Argus built for Jason and his crew, the Argonauts, to carry them on their quest for the Golden Fleece. In the 18th century the French astronomer Lacaille divded it into three smaller constellations, Carina the Keel, Puppis the Stern or Poop, and Vela the Sail."
click the small picture and move your mouse over it to see the contellations.   ©: Christopher J. Picking www.starrynightphotos.com>/a>
tags: #Argonauts #constellation

139c  (reverse #022- Greece) -the Argonauts

Argonautenschiff The Argonauts (Ancient Greek:) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, the Argo, named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts" literally means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe in the area."

Artist: Lorenzo COSTA (1460-1535) Title: 'The Argo', Date: 1st third of 16th century, Medium: tempera on panel, Dimensions: 47 x 58 cm (18.5 x 22.8 in), Current location: Museo Civico Padua.
Source/Photographer: The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing Gmb
  ©: The work of art depicted in this image and the reproduction thereof are in the public domain worldwide. The reproduction is part of a collection of reproductions compiled by The Yorck Project. The compilation copyright is held by Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH and licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
tags: #argonaut #greek #mythology

140  reverse #21- Roman Empire -Roman Fleet Victorious over the Carthaginians

Roman Fleet Victorious over the Carthaginians 'The Roman Fleet Victorious over the Carthaginians at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus' (detail)
Gabriel Jacques de SAINT-AUBIN (French, 1724 - 1780)
Drawing: Watercolor, gouache, pen and India and brown ink over black chalk. France (about 1763)
Source: J. Paul Getty Museum. Object Number: 2006.23 Dimensions: 21.5x39.6 cm (8 7/16 x 15 9/16 in.)

"The sea teems with a seemingly endless fleet of warships; a vast battle looms, ships crowd closer and closer to one another. Rows of oars froth up the sea, the frenzied water foreshadowing the impending combat. Standing at opposite ends of the two central ships are the leaders of warring factions. On one deck is the stoic Roman general Regulus, commanding his followers as they attempt to board an enemy ship. Opposing Regulus is the Carthaginian leader Hamilcar Barca, father of the famed general Hannibal. In fanciful reference to Hannibal, the Carthaginian prows are elephant heads armed with imposing ramming tusks.
Gabriel Jacques de SAINT-AUBIN meticulously described every detail of the foreground ships. He first drew the composition in black chalk and then used pen and ink to further articulate details of the ships, such as their masts and riggings, and the myriad figures. Using a limited palette of deftly applied watercolor--gray, brown, and blue--Saint-Aubin sensitively colored the sea and sky.
The first Punic War (264-241 BC) was a conflict largely fought at sea. Involving over three hundred vessels, the battle depicted here was one of the largest navel battles in history. The smaller Roman fleet defeated the Carthaginian by dividing their forces into four squadrons and waging four separate battles.
This drawing is one of a series of illustrations Saint-Aubin made in the 1760s for an ambitious history of Rome. Engravings after drawings as well as maps were to accompany this multi-volume series which was never completed. In 1789, twenty-nine engraved plates from Saint-Aubin's drawings illustrated a more modest Roman history."
  ©: PD - J. Paul Getty Museum
tags: #battle of cape ecnomus, #saint-auban, #j. Paul Getty museum, #punic war

ref. # 141  (reverse #020- religion) -WATER as healing power

Because Naäman washes himself in the Jordan river, he is cured from lepracy. Because Naäman washes himself in the Jordan river, he is cured from lepracy. 2 Reg.5 Xs 14
  ©:
tags: #water #healing #leprosy

141a  (reverse #020- religion) -Devil a Fishing

fishing devil "Devil A Fishing- 1898 Antique Character Sketch, Moral Illustrations, Study on Morality, Surreal Fantasy Sublime, Strange Biblical Lessons"
"HIs Satanic Majesty is sitting upon the bluffs of what may be called the "Devil's Lake"... He has set out his fishing-rods, as is seen, all around the beach; and, with his hooks variously baited, he is angling for his game, according to his vocation."
-George Lofton

"Illustration from 1898 antique book illustrating and studying morality and biblical lessons. imagelofton approx. 4" x 5 3/4"."
  ©: gravure: PD (1898), text from: www.etsy.com/shop/apaperreverie
tags: #devil #print #etsy

142a  (reverse #019- sea gods) -'Vishnu in the form of a Fish'

Vishnu in the form of a fish Wood engraving from the 1790's. "The first Indian AVATAR, denominated hat of MATSE; representing the incarnation of VEESHNU in the form of a FISH: in the Opinion of Sr. William Jones, pointedly allusive to the GENERAL DELUGE."
  ©: www.columbia.edu
tags: #water #Vishnu #Columbia Univ.

ref. # 143  (reverse #020- religion) -suicide list


  ©:
tags: #water #suicide list

ref. # 144  (reverse #017) -Alexander the Great

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 145  (reverse #016) -suicide list

list of suicides   ©:
tags: 

ref. # 146  (reverse #015) -Swimming

swimming   ©:
tags: 

147  (reverse #014) -Vasco-da-Gama

Vasco da Gama Alfredo Roque GAMEIRO (1864-1935) 'A partida de Vasco da Gama a Índia em 1497'. (circa 1900) Dimensions: fol.: 42 x 57 cm Current location: National Library of Portugal
  ©: Source/Photographer: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal Cota local: E. 294 A. PD Wikipedia

Read more: 'Wreckage of Vasco da Gama's Esmeralda discovered off the coast of Oman: Ship was sunk during violent storms in 1503'
The fourth Portuguese India Armada: a Timeline:
February 10, 1502: Two squadrons of the 4th Armada, ten ships under admiral Vasco da Gama and 5 ships under vice-admiral Vicente Sodré, set out from Lisbon. Esmeralda was part of the second squadron.
Late February, 1502: Fleet anchors in Senegal to take water. It is reported in one chronicle that Fernan d'Atouguia, captain of the Leitoa Nova fell ill and died here.
Early March, 1502: The 4th Armada sailed southwest from Africa and may have made a brief watering stop at Cape St. Augustine, Brazil, before heading across the south Atlantic towards the Cape of Good Hope.
April 1, 1502: The third squadron of the 4th Armada - five ships under Estêvão da Gama - finally sets out from Lisbon. Charting its own course, the third squadron will only catch up with the main body of the 4th Armada in India.
April - May, 1502: Violent storms at the Cape separates the fifteen ships of Vasco da Gama's fleet. Each captain is forced to figure out his own passage around the Cape, and make his own way towards the pre-arranged rendez-vous point on the other side.
May, 1502: After making watering stops in Madeira and Cape Verde, Estevão da Gama's third squadron reportedly spotted an island in the south Atlantic, but does not stop to investigate.
June 7, 1502: The third squadron of Estevão da Gama is caught in a terrible storm around the Cape and splits into two groups.

Vasco Da Gama was the first person to sail directly from Europe to India, from 1497 to 1499 and this linked Europe to Asia by sea for the first time. Alfredo's Roque painting showing the fleet on its voyage in 1498.
The Armada was originally envisaged as two squadrons - 15 ships under the admiral to head to India, 5 under the vice-admiral designated to patrol the mouth of the Red Sea
  ©:   www.dailymail.co.uk (article requested to share)

The full details of the wreckage and its discovery feature in National Geographic
Link: Bluewater Recoveries
Link: http://esmeraldashipwreck.com/
tags: Vasco da Gama, #Oman, #Esmeraldashipwreck

ref. # 148  (reverse #013) -Portugal - Diogo Ribeiro, World Map, 1529

Diogo Ribeiro, World Map, 1529 This map by the Portuguese mapmaker Diogo Ribeiro is one of the first examples of political geography manipulating reality. Throughout the early sixteenth century Spain and Portugal were rivals for control of the spice trade, centered on the Moluccas islands in the Indonesian archipelago. In 1494 both powers signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, with a line drawn on a map running through the middle of the Atlantic, with everything to the west belonging to the Spanish, and everything to the east the Portuguese. Following Magellan's first global circumnavigation in 1522, the question was where the line would fall in the eastern hemisphere. The Portuguese Ribeiro switched aides and was paid by the Spanish to make this apparently objective map, full of scientific detail, which shows the Moluccas (in both the far left and right-hand sides of the map) just within the Spanish half of the globe. Modern measurement suggests he was wrong, but it took hundreds of years to disprove his brilliant and extremely effective act of cartographic deception.
See also ref. 015b (Cantino Planisphere map)
  ©:History of the world in twelve maps
tags:  #Tordesillas #Diogo #Ribeiro

ref. # 148a  (reverse #014) -King Manuel's dream of the river Ganges and Indus

King Manuels dream of the river Ganges and Indus Sonho profético de D. Manuel com os rios Ganges e Indo. Numa edição de Os Lusíadas.   ©: Biblioteca National de Portugal, PD Wikipedia
tags: #Os Luciadas #King Manuel #Luiz de Camoes

149  (reverse #012 navigation) -Polynesian Navigation Aid

Polynesian Navigation Aid Polynesian navigation device showing directions of winds, waves and islands, c. 1904

"It has become clear that by 2500 years ago the peoples of Oceania had acquired the ability to build seaworthy outrigger canoes and to navigate thousands of miles using the stars, ocean currents and swells. Certainly some individuals who served as navigators had inborn capabilities similar to those possessed by migrating birds. Unfortunately modern civilization has destroyed these capabilities. However there still exist a few practitioners of this art. One of them is Mau Piailug, who was taught the ancient art by his grandfather. In 1976 he successfully navigated a Polynesian double-hulled canoe Hokule'a from Hawaii to Tahiti, without charts or any navigational instruments. Today, in his seventies, he is teaching young Polynesians the navigational arts at a school on the island Satawal in the Carolines."
This text ©: biega.com

"Polynesian navigation is a system of navigation used by Polynesians to make long voyages across thousands of miles of open ocean. Navigators travel to small inhabited islands using only their own senses and knowledge passed by oral tradition from navigator to apprentice, often in the form of song. In order to locate directions at various times of day and year, Polynesian navigators memorize important facts: the motion of specific stars, so where they would rise and set on the horizon of the ocean; weather and the seasons of travel; wildlife species (which gather at particular positions); the direction, size, and speed of ocean waves; colors of the sea and sky, especially how clouds would cluster at the locations of some islands; and angles for approaching harbours.
These wayfinding techniques along with their unique outrigger canoe construction methods have been kept as guild secrets. Generally each island maintained a guild of navigators who had very high status and in times of famine or difficulty these navigators could trade for aid or evacuate people to neighboring islands. As of 2014, the original methods of Polynesian navigation are still taught in the Polynesian outlier of Taumako Island in the Solomon Islands."
  ©: Public Domain Wikipedia
tags: #Polynesia #navigation aid #Mau Piailug

ref. # 149a  (reverse #012 navigation) -First settlers in Polynesia

First Settlers in Polynesia "The first Polynesian settlers arrived in the islands between 300 A.D. and 800 A.D. The circumstances of the first settlements of Hawaii are debated to this day (some believe there was an initial voyage from the Marquesas followed by a Tahitian invation in around 1300 A.D., whereas others argue there was only one longer period of settlement). There is no doubt however, that these first inhabitants navigated over a very large portion of sea during a time when the western world was barely daring to travel out of sight of the shore".
  ©: www.mtholyoke.edu
tags:  #Polynesia

149b  (reverse #012 navigation) -'The stars and the Frigate Bird'

Nga Tohunga Waka Drawing of a canoe with a white sail, above is the design of a large bird and several stars. It refers to the spiritual guardians of Polynesian navigators that may sometimes be stars or even birds. In this case the cloak has become a frigate bird. From Nga Tohunga Waka - The Navigator Series. 1993.
Pigment ink. Drawn by: John Bevan Ford
Made by Maori. Date 1991. Painted in: New Zealand (Oceania, Polynesia, New Zealand)
  ©: www.britishmuseum.org
tags:  #Nga Tohunga Waka #British Museum #John Bevan Ford #New Zealand

149c  (reverse #012 navigation) -Calculation of the Longitude

Calculation of the Longitude 16 - Le calcul de la longitude, d´après Jan van der Straet, dit Giovanni Stradano - Stradanus (Bruges, 1523 - Florence, 1605) Burin - 22 x 28 cm - vers 1600 - en bas à droite - Legs Wittert (1903) - Inventaire numero 11786
  ©: www.wittert.ulg.ac.be
tags:  #Nova Reperta #Jan van der Straet #Stradanus #

149d  (reverse #012 navigation) -Lapis Polaris Magnes (Nova Reperta)

Lapis Polaris Magnes (Nova Reperta) 'Lapis Polaris Magnes' (Nova Reperta) 'the invention of the compass"
Seated to right, seen on profile, Flavio Amalfitano at his desk measuring a compass while reading a book; a globe and an hourglass also seen on his desk and a dog at his feet; opposite him, floating on air, a sailing ship and below another desk with books and an astrolabe globe; a large recipient filled with liquid and a stone at entre seen in the foreground, to left.

See also: collections.rmg.co.uk

  ©: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license. www.britishmuseum.org
tags:  #Lapis Polaris Magnes #Nova Reperta# #British Museum

ref. # 149e  (reverse #012 navigation) -'the Light of Navigation'

Lapis Polaris Magnes (Nova Reperta) "The light of navigation", Dutch sailing handbook, 1608, showing compass, hourglass, sea astrolabe, terrestrial and celestial globes, divider, Jacob's staff and astrolabe.
"The picture shows the sciences which make seafaring possible: In the middle, under the light of knowledge, a teacher points at globes and maps. On the left side, Neptune, the god of water and the sea, on the right Aeolus, the ruler of the winds", "Sailing handbook, showing the following navigational equipment on the book frontispiece: compass, hourglass, mariner's astrolabe, terrestrial and celestial globes, divider, Jacob's staff and astrolabe."
Book frontispiece of the sailing handbook 'The light of navigation', copperplate etching, Universitätsbibliothek Marburg
  ©: Universitätsbibliothek, Marburg
tags:  #light of navigation #nova reperta

150  (reverse #011 navigation) -Layout of marine compass in Ming dynasty

Marine compass in Ming dynasty Layout of marine compass in Ming dynasty "(During the Sung dynasty (1000 CE) many trading ships were then able to sail as far as Saudi Arabia without getting lost ..) The plate was converted to a bowl, and retained the markings of the heaven's plate around its circumference, in a simplified form. The inner circle had the eight trigrams and the outer circle the 24 directions (based on azimuth points)."
www.smith.edu

  ©:PD Wikipedia
tags: #Ming dynasty #compass

150a  (reverse #011 navigation) - Ptolemy

Ptolomy "Engraving of a crowned Ptolemy being guided by the muse Astronomy, from Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reisch, 1508. Although Abu Ma'shar believed Ptolemy to be one of the Ptolemies who ruled Egypt after the conquest of Alexander the title ´King Ptolemy´ is generally viewed as a mark of respect for Ptolemy´s elevated standing in science."
Wikipedia

"In the Syntaxis (or Almagest), Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.) synthesised mathematical astronomy into a coherent whole which rendered his predecessors obsolete and would dominate Western and Islamic thought until the sixteenth century. He also wrote works on astrology, geography, optics and music."
www.hps.cam.ac.uk

  ©: PD, Wikipedia; text: Graham Hart and the Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge
tags: #Ptolemy

ref. # 150b  (reverse #11 navigation) -Ptolemy's Planisphærium

Ptolemy's Planisphaerium "Relevant to astrolabes is Ptolemy's Planisphærium, so called in the Middle Ages because it dealt with the problem of mapping figures from the celestial sphere onto a plane, by a specific method, now known as 'stereographic projection', that preserves circles. The early interest in this technique, well before Ptolemy, may have been a desire to simplify certain problems in spherical geometry by reducing them to plane geometry. However, the stereographic projection later became the mathematical basis of the plane astrolabe, the most popular of medieval astronomical instruments."
www.hps.cam.ac.uk

  ©: Graham Hart and the Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge
tags: #Astrolabe #Ptolemy #Ptolemy's Planisphaerium

150c  (reverse #011 navigation) -Cross Staff

cross staff Example illustration from mystic rosicrucian Robert Fludd's 'De Naturæ Simia'. This book forms part of the encyclopaedic series issued over 9 years to 1626 called 'Utriusque Cosmi Maioris Scilicet et Minores Metaphysica, Physica Atque Technica Historia'
via content.lib.utah.edu
tags: #Robert Fludd

More on Cross staff and marine navigation in the 17th century www.penobscotmarinemuseum.org
"The term Jacob's staff, also cross-staff, a ballastella, a fore-staff, or a balestilha, is used to refer to several things. This can lead to considerable confusion unless one clarifies the purpose for the object so named. In its most basic form, a Jacob's staff is a stick or pole with length markings; most staffs are much more complicated than that, and usually contain a number of measurement and stabilization features. The two most frequent uses are: 1: in astronomy and navigation for a simple device to measure angles, later replaced by the more precise sextants; 2: in surveying (and scientific fields that use surveying techniques, such as geology and ecology) for a vertical rod that penetrates or sits on the ground and supports a compass or other instrument.
The simplest use of a Jacob's staff is to make qualitative judgements of the height and angle of an object relative to the user of the staff." Wikipedia

151  (reverse #010) -King Manuel of Portugal rides a seamonster

Martin Waldseemüller's Carta Marina On a detail of Martin Waldseemüller's 'Carta Marina' (1516), King Manuel of Portugal rides a sea monster, located off the southern tip of Africa. It´s good to be the king, with a nod to Portugal's maritime dominance at the time.
  ©: Library of Congress
read Chet Van Duzer´s book Sea Monsters on Medieval and Renaissance Maps
tags: #Carta Marina #King Manuel of Portugal #Martin Waldseemueller

152  'Ocean Memory' game -Monstrum Marinum rudimenta habitus Episcopi referens

Monstrum Marinum rudimenta habitus Episcopi referens 'Monstrorum Historia' Woodcut illustrations from Aldrovandi's 'History of Monsters'
"Ulissi Aldrovandi (Aldrovandus) (1522-1605) graduated from Padua and Bologna Universities with degrees in law, philosophy and medicine and taught logic to supplement the occasional patronage bestowed on him by his cousin, the Pope.
During nearly a year of confinement in Rome while fighting a heresy charge, Aldrovandi developed a strong interest in the natural world. He began to collect all manner of specimens which apparently came to constitute a formidable natural history museum for those that visited him.
He travelled quite a bit in his quest for specimens and recorded his observations in some 4000 manuscripts, a number of which were published during his lifetime. His writings include studies in ornithology, medicine, hydrology, zoology, botany and, as can be imagined from the embellished and fantastical images here, a paper on mythical creatures as well (among others).
Aldrovandi was instrumental in establishing the botanical gardens in Bologna and his alma mater there awarded him the first Professorial chair in natural science."
  © text: bibliodyssey.blogspot.nl

The sea bishop or bishop-fish was a type of sea monster reported in the 16th century. According to legend, it was taken to the King of Poland, who wished to keep it. It was also shown to a group of Catholic bishops, to whom the bishop-fish gestured, appealing to be released. They granted its wish, at which point it made the sign of the cross and disappeared into the sea.
Another was supposedly captured in the ocean near Germany in 1531. It refused to eat and died after three days. It was described and pictured in the fourth volume of Conrad Gesner's famous Historiae animalium.

The sea monk (also monk-fish or monkfish) was a sea creature found off the eastern coast of the Danish island of Zealand, almost certainly in 1546. It was described as a "fish" that looked superficially like a monk, and was mentioned and pictured in the fourth volume of Conrad Gesner's famous Historia Animalium. Gesner also referenced a similar monster found in the Firth of Forth, according to Boethius, and a sighting off the coast of Poland in 1531.

The sea monk was subsequently popularised in Guillaume du Bartas's epic poem La Sepmaine; ou, Creation du monde, where the poet speaks of correspondences between land and sea, mentioning both the "mytred Bishop" and the "cowled Fryer":
"Seas have (as well as skies) Sun, Moon, and Stars;
(As well as ayre) Swallows, and Rooks, and Stares;
(As well as earth) Vines, Roses, Nettles, Millions,
Pinks, Gilliflowers, Mushrooms, and many millions
of other Plants lants (more rare and strange than these)
As very fishes living in the Seas.
And also Rams, Calfs, Horses, Hares, and Hogs,
Wolves, Lions, Urchins, Elephants and Dogs,
Yea, Men and Mayds; and (which I more admire)
The mytred Bishop and the cowled Fryer;
Whereof, examples, (but a few years since)
Were shew'n the Norways, and Polonian Prince."


Steenstrup's comparison of a squid with two drawings of the sea monk from the sixteenth century
In the early 1850´s, Danish zoologist Japetus Steenstrup suggested that the sea-monk was a giant squid, a theory more recently popularised by writer Richard Ellis. Cryptozoologist Bernard Heuvelmans believed the report was based on the discovery of an errant walrus. More recently, it has been suggested that it was an angel shark Squatina squatina, which is commonly called "monkfish" in English or munk in Norwegian and Danish. Other suggested suspects for the sea monk include a grey seal, a hooded seal, a monk seal, or a hoax such as a Jenny Haniver.
  ©: PD
tags: #Monkfish #Bishopfish #Aldrovandi #sea monster

152b -Sea Monk

Olaus Magnus, Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus from Olaus Magnus, ´Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus´ named ´Sea Monk on a Rock´ (1555) The woodcut shows a rock in shape of a monk´s frock which is situated in the sea south of the main part of the Faeroe Islands. The Sea Monk (in Danish "Munken") has a safe harbour. To the right we see a wrecked ship. At the island above a raven." Wikipedia
  ©: PD
tags: #Olaus Magnus #Sea Monk

153  (reverse #008) -Sea Monster

sea monster ´Float with Sea Monster´ Pieter van der Borcht
  ©: PD
tags:  #Seamonster #Pieter van der Borcht

153a  (reverse #008) -Sea Monster

sea monster   ©: from Canterbury, also in Boymans-Beuningen, Rotterdam
tags: #sea monster

153b  (reverse #007) -Sea monster with eyes on its sides

sea monster with eyes on its sides Monstrosus Sur Marinus
Woodcut illustrations from Aldrovandi's 'History of Monsters'
via: bibliodessey.blogspot.nl
  ©: PD via
tags:  #sea monster #aldrovandi #woodcut illustration

ref. # 153c  (reverse #007)

sea monster   ©:
tags:  #sea monster

ref. # 153d  (reverse #007)

sea monster   ©:
tags:  #sea monster

ref. # 153e  (reverse #007)

sea monster   ©:
tags:  #sea monster

154  (reverse #008) -'das Meerwunder'

Sea Monster 'Das Meerwunder'
(the Sea Monster) Albrecht Dürer ca.1498
  ©: Creative Commons
tags:  #Albrecht Duerer #Sea Monster

155  (reverse #006) -'Flammarion'

Flammarion "The Flammarion engraving is a wood engraving by an unknown artist that first appeared in Camille Flammarion's L´Atmosphère: météorologie populaire (1888). The image depicts a man crawling under the edge of the sky, depicted as if it were a solid hemisphere, to look at the mysterious Empyrean beyond. The caption underneath the engraving (not shown here) translates to "A medieval missionary tells that he has found the point where heaven and Earth meet..."
  ©: wikimechanics.org/premise

"I bet you have seen this picture before. If not in black and white, then perhaps you've seen in it in colour. This is a much recycled illustration, reprinted many times, with or without adaptation, in various books, on book and magazine covers, posters and adverts. This illustration is famous on at least two accounts. First, it is famous on account of its uncertain date and origin. For instance, Ernst Zimmer, a German historian of astronomy, thinks that the woodcut goes back to the early 16th centuty, to the school of Albrecht Dürer. Owen Gingerich, the historian of astronomy of Harvard University and the Smithsonian, is convinced that it occurs for the first time in Ernst Kraemers five-volume popular science book Weltall und Menschheit from 1907. However, two scholars, Arthur Beer, an astrophysicist and historian of German science at Cambridge, and Bruno Weber, the curator of rare books at the Zürich central library, have independently traced the illustration back to Camille Flammarion's popular science book L'atmosphére: météorologie populaire from 1888."
© Dr. Pavel Gregoric blogomata.wordpress.com, also for more on the explanation of the 'protruding woodstick' in the image.
And this is also quite intesting to read:"Flammarion, Camille (1842-1925)." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. 2001. Retrieved January 05, 2016 from: Encyclopedia.com
tags:  #flammarion #flat earth

155a  (reverse #006) -Round earth

On the Sphere of the World Picture from a 1550 edition of 'On the Sphere of the World', the most influential astronomy textbook of 13th-century Europe.
  ©: from Wikipedia
tags:  #Sphere of the World #flat earth

155b  (reverse #006) -Round earth

Round earth Gregor REISCH, 'Margarita Philosophica' ('pearl of wisdom') 16th century   ©: from clarklibrary.wordpress.com
tags:  #margarita philosophica #gregor reisch

156  (reverse #005) -Flat earth: Map of Square Earth

square earth 'Map of the Square and Stationary Earth' by prof. Orlando FERGUSON (Hot Springs, South Dakota)
Four hundred passages in the Bible that condemns the globe theory, or the 'flying earth', and none sustain it. This map is the bible map of the world by Orlando Ferguson, (1893)
  ©: from Wikipedia
tags:  #square earth #Orlando Ferguson

ref. # 157  (reverse #004) -list Linda Hall

list Linda Hall   ©:
tags: 

158  (reverse #003) -'Temperance' (Temperantia) from 'The Virtues'

Temperance (Temperantia) from The Virtue Artist: Philips GALLE (Netherlandish, Haarlem 1537-1612 Antwerp). After Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Netherlandish, Breda (?) ca. 1525-1569 Brussels)
Publisher: Hieronymus COCK (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1510-1570 Antwerp) Date: ca.1559-60. Engraving; first state of two
Dimensions: Plate: 8 3/4 x 11 7/16 in. (22.3 x 29.1 cm)

Stradanus´s NOVA REPERTA, a series of engravings representing geographical, navigational, and astronomical discoveries as well as mechanical and manufacturing innovations from milling and metallurgical techniques to oil painting and printing. For most inventions, the Nova reperta offered a compressed view of each step in the production process within a unified and densely populated pictorial space
  ©:www.metmuseum.org
More on 'Nova Reperta': harvardmagazine.com
Extensive article on 'Temperature' www.rach.org/rmt/rmt261a.thtm
tags: #Temperance #Nova Reperta

ref. # 159  (reverse #002) -



tags: #,#, #ocean

ref. # 159a  (reverse #002) -God Started Creation on Waters

God Started Creation on Waters The Ancestors of the Israelites has close contact with Babylonia. Abraham actually came from there and his later generations moved into Egypt. It's natural that they would have described the universe similarly except that God created it all. In the book of Genesis of the Christian Bible, it was written: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. [Chapter 1:Verse 1.] And the earth was without form, and void. And darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of god moved upon the face of the waters. [Chapter 1: Verse2]"

It is obvious that water existed before the creation, and that God's work started from the waters.

source: ABCC Australia 2015 www.new-physics.com
tags: #god,#bible, #ocean

ref. # 160  (reverse #001) -Age of Discovery 1340 - 1600

Discoveries of Spain and Portugal from 1340 - 1600 Discoveries of Spain and Portugal from 1340 - 1600
source: photobucket.com
tags: #discoveries #spain #portugal

ref. # 160a  (reverse #001) -Exploration of the New World

Exploration of the New World Map depicting the European exploration of the New World in the 15th and 16th centuries, including the voyages made by Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Alonso de Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci, Pedro Àlvares Cabral, Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastiàn del Cano, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Jacques Cartier, Sir Francis Drake, and others. The lines of demarcation represent an early division between the territory of Spain (to the west) and Portugal (to the east).
  ©: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
tags: #exploration #discovery #new world

ref. # 160b  (reverse #001) -Portuguese Empire by Marcos Ceia

Portuguese Empire by Marcos Ceia   ©: Marcos Ceia: deviantart.net
tags: #Portuguese Empire

163  'Ocean Memory' game - Stars and Constellations

Stars and Constellations This little picture is enormously popular across social media and internet forums. First of all because it transfers a feeling, a feeling about being young and wondering about the Universe the first time in your life. This is the start of many interesting journeys and besides that, it is also a fine drawing.
  ©: artist unknown
tags:  #stargazer #Ocean #Memory #Game

164  'Ocean Memory' game - 'Amerigo Vespucci finding the Southern Cross'

Amerigo Vespucci finding the Southern Cross Plate 19 from Nova Repertae (c.1600), entitled "The Development of the Mariners Astrolabe and the Discovery of America by Amerigo Vespucci".
Depiction of Amerigo Vespucci finding the Southern Cross constellation with an "astrolabium". Event described by Vespucci in his Letter to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici (dated 1500) as happening during his 1499 voyage to the Indies. Print includes Vespucci's own allusion to a relevant passage in Dante's Purgatorio (passage). Although this is one of the first recorded references to the use of the mariner's astrolabe in navigation, the artist seems unfamiliar with that instrument, and has Vespucci holding a spherical version instead; there seems to also be a quadrant on the table (also reported used by Vespucci). N.B. - this 1500 letter was not known to exist until discovered by Bandini in 1745! Artist either knew of it already, or may have drawn speculatively from a very brief reference to astrolabe in Vespucci's letter published in 1505 Mundus Novus (passage, although, unlike in the 1500 letter, there is no reference to the Southern Cross nor Dante here). Etching by Jan COLLAERT, based on Stradanus (1591).
  ©: from Wikipedia: Creative Commons
tags:  #Amerigo Vespucci #Southern Cross #Giovanni Stradano #Jan van der Straet #Jan Collaert #Ocean #Memory #Game #mm

164a  'Ocean Memory' game -'Stargazing'

Stargazer Astronomer stargazing, from 'Introductorium in Astronomiam', published in Venice 1506
  ©: Creative Commons
tags:  #Stargazing #astronomy #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 165  'Ocean Memory' game - "Across the Sea'

Across the Sea antique american game 'Across the Sea' from an antique american game by Milton Bradley Company 1910

Especially charming color lithograph showcasing the countries of Switzerland, Russia, Japan, Holland,Venice, and Egypt. Established by Milton Bradley in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1860, The Milton Bradley Company has become a household name in American games.
  ©: www.zandkantiques.com
tags: #Across the Sea #Ocean #Memory #Game

166  'Ocean Memory' game - Sperm whale

Sperm Whale Greenland Whale Fishery In the days before photography and mass media, pictures of whales were rare and while based in reality often fanciful. While much more accurate than many early illustrations, there is still a great deal of artistic license or just plain inaccuracy. The shape is good and proportions reasonable (it's too "tall" though), but the lower jaw is too large and the expression is rather anthropomorphic. Strangest of all is how these 4 men have managed to drag a 60+ tonne whale onto an ice floe. Such pictures fed the public perception of whales and whaling. If you want to be particularly critical, you could say that they sanitized the whale fishery and made it seem far more benign and clean than it really was.
  ©: text from: www.coolantarctica.com (there's a nice folksong here as well)
Chromolithograph of a sperm whale from "Johnson's Household Book of Nature: Mammalia", Plate XXIX Cetacea, 1880 by Henry J. Johnson 7" x 9.5"

tags: #sperm whale #Greenland whale fishery #whaling #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 167  'Ocean Memory' game - Anglerfish / Rape (Spanish for Monkfish) / Lotte / Zeeduivel

Anglerfish, Rape, Lotte, Zeeduivel Anglerfish derive their name from the fascinating method that they utilize to catch their prey. The first spine of their dorsal fin is located on their head, forming a type of fishing rod with a fleshy lure. ´ It therefore buries itself in the muddy sand... The neighbouring fish, following the instincts of their inquisitive nature, come to examine the curious object and are suddenly snapped up by the wide jaws of their hidden foe´ -as described by Rev. J.G. Wood.
  ©: unknown
tags: #anglerfish #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 167a  'Ocean Memory' game - Anglerfish

Anglerfish, Rape, Lotte, Zeeduivel There are approximately 210 marine species of anglerfish. In some notable species of deep-sea angler, the much smaller male bites the female and becomes fused to her skin. The bloodstreams of the two fishes become connected; afterwards the male becomes parasitec on the female. Some deep-sea angler species have bioluminiscent lures, which both attract and illuminate prey.
  ©: Ponsonby´s Curious Compendium ´Sea Creatures´ Dr. David Ponsonby & Professor Georges Dussart, IVY Press, ISBN: 978-1-78240-245-9
tags: #anglerfish #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 168  'Ocean Memory' game - 'Boladora'

Boladora or flying fish Flying fish can be seen jumping out of warm ocean waters worldwide. Their streamlined torpedo shape helps them gather enough underwater speed to break the surface, and their large, wing-like pectoral fins get them airborne.
Flying fish actually glide rather than truly fly. They launch themselves into the air by beating the tail very fast and spreading their pectoral fins to use as wings. There are 52 different species of flying fish which are found in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  ©: British Museum
tags: #boladora #flying fish #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 183  'Ocean Memory' game -

Ocean Memory Pollution   ©: photographer unknown
tags: #pollution #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 184  'Ocean Memory' game -

  ©: photographer unknown
* When you know more about this picture, please send an e-mail and earn 15% discount on the purchase of the book!
tags: #pollution #Ocean #Memory #Game

ref. # 185 2014 travel journal - The Blue Humanities

The Blue Humanities In studying the sea, we are returning to our beginnings

"Although fully half of the world's people now live within a hundred miles of an ocean, few today have a working knowledge of the sea. As a science, oceanography is still in its infancy. More is known about the dark side of the moon than is known about the depths of the oceans," writes the sea explorer David Helvarg. Yet large numbers of people know the sea in other ways, through the arts and literature. From the beginning of the nineteenth century, fiction has been imagining undersea worlds that explorers were unable to reach. Rachel Carson, who did as much as anyone to open up the marine sciences, was inspired by the arts and literature. She wrote in 1951 that humans were destined to return to the sea from which they had emerged eons earlier, but this time they would do so "mentally and imaginatively." This cultural turn to the sea began in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and by now there is a vast trove of writing, painting, and music that awaits examination under the rubric of what English professor Steve Mentz would like us to call the 'blue humanities'."
please read the full article here
  © text:John R. GILLIS (author of 'The Human Shore', Seacoasts in History) | HUMANITIES, May/June 2013 | Volume 34, Number 3
  © image:  'Among the Waves' by Ivan AIVAZOVSKY (1817-1900) / Scala / Art Resource, NY
tags: #the Blue Humanities #John R. Gilles #Ivan Aivazovsky

ref. # 186  2014 travel journal - Riebeeck -banknotes

The engraving on banknote is made after this portrait by Dirck Craey, 1650. Oil on panel, size 74x57". It is in Amsterdams Rijksmuseum ... and is labeled as "A Portrait of a Man, presumably Bartholomeus Vermuyden".
  ©: www.notescollector.eu/pages/en/notes.php?noteId=858
tags:  #Jan van Riebeeck #South africa

186a  2014 travel journal - portrait Bartholomeus Vermuyden

Portrait of a Man, thought to be Bartholomeus Vermuyden (1616/17-1650), Dirck Craey, 1650
  ©: Rijksmuseum (public domain)
http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.8184
tags: #Bartholomeus Vermuyden #Rijksmuseum #South Africa

ref. # 186b  2014 travel journal - portrait Jan van Riebeeck

  ©: www.janvanriebeeckhuis.nl/?p=304
tags:  #Jan van Riebeeck
more about the landing of Jan van Riebeeck at #033

ref. # 186c  2014 travel journal - Riebeeck

  ©:
tags: 

ref. # 186d  2014 travel journal - Aernout Smit 'Table Bay', 1683

Aernout Smit Table Bay, 1683 Aernout Smit Table Bay, 1683
  ©: William Fehr Collection, Cape Town
tags: #Aernout Smit #Table Bay, #Cape Town

186e  2014 travel journal - view on Fish Hook from the metro

view on Fish hook from the metro view on Simon's Town
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fish Hook #South Africa

186f  2014 travel journal - preparing the GEMINI

sy-GEMINI in Simon's Town preparing sy-GEMINI, False Bay Yacht Club, Simon's Town
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #False Bay Yacht Club #Simon's Town #South africa

186g  2014 travel journal - Simon's Town, False Bay Yacht Club

Simon's Town, False Bay Yacht Club Marina of False Bay Yacht Club
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #False Bay Yacht Club #Simon's Town

187  2014 travel journal -Simon´s Town

Simon's Town Simon's Town (Afrikaans: Simonstad), sometimes spelled Simonstown, is a town near Cape Town, South Africa, which is home to the South African Navy. It is located on the shores of False Bay, on the eastern side of the Cape Peninsula. For more than two centuries it has been an important naval base and harbour (first for the Royal Navy and now the South African Navy). The town is named after Simon van der Stel, an early governor of the Cape Colony. Wikipedia
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Simon's Town #South Africa

188  2014 travel journal -(tryptich) ´Boulders Bay´

Boulders bay Boulders Beach is located a few kilometres to the south of Simon´s Town, in the direction of Miller's Point. Here small coves with white sandy beaches and calm shallow water are interspersed between boulders of Cape granite. There has been a colony of African penguins at Boulders Beach since 1985. There is no record of the birds having lived here prior to that date, so their decision to settle in an area already well-utilized by humans is remarkable. There are only three penguin populations on the mainland in southern Africa; the others are close to Hermanus at Stoney Point and Betty's Bay.
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014 pfs0308
tags: #Boulders Bay #South Africa #Simons Town

189  2014 travel journal -'Obsidian'

obsidian link: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsidian
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #obsidian #South Africa

189a  2014 travel journal -Obsidian

obsidian Studio Drift ´the Obsidian Project´ Part II (2015)
Using ancient alchemical methods, Studio Drift obtains ´synthetic obsidian´from chemical waste. This black paramagnetic stony glass has very specific properties including light absortion which transforms the refectic environment into a spectacle that relaxes the eyes and reflects the reality of the world back at us.

"One of the weirdest discoveries that we´ve made was that the material sounded like metal, looked like glass and felt like stone." The first result in this research is a sculpture with reflective qualities. The Aztecs used natural obsidian to make mirrors and they believed that these black mirrors were the gateway to the spiritual world. As now our spirit reflects in our own chemical waste".
link: www.studiodrift.com
  ©: photo Robert Schilder (2015) Dutch Design Week in van Abbe Museum, Eindhoven
tags: #Studio Drift #obsidian #South Africa

190  2014 travel journal -sy GEMINI rounding Cape of Good Hope

rounding Cape of Good Hope ©: Robert Schilder 2014, www.sy-gemini.nl
tags: #Cape of Good Hope #sy-Gemini


 


 


for more on 'CAPE OF GOOD HOPE' see 034 and following

190a  2014 travel journal - Stop Apartheid Poster

Stop Apartheid Poster The design of this poster is from Irish Charity TrOcaire and is mentioned on: Ezakwantu gallery
"The political art of the apartheid era often originated in the universities and large cities. It was usually short lived in the sense of being graffiti, protest cartoons, or similar works published in student publications. Art with a political message was often banned and anyway, was not intended for deliberate preservation".

"The Soweto uprising was a response to the way that the non-white people were being treated in South Africa. It is also known as ´June 16´ and was a student lead protest that began June 16 1976. Around 20,000 people were involved in the protest in Soweto, which was in response to the establishment of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in schools. 176 lives were lost, however it was said to be up to 700. The Soweto Riots in South Africa raised awareness of the apartheid regime in South Africa."
text from: georgiamorrow.weebly.com/causes.html
from: Art with a cause. peace_art.circle-24.com
tags: #Stop Apartheid #South africa

ref. # 190b  2014 travel journal - Township

Township South Africa "Imagine a never-ending field of homes made out of scraps of metal sheets, pieces of moldy wood, used tires, and travel containers held by rope, old nails, and melted tar with electric lines running up and down the streets at the reach of children."
  ©: Chris Chavez 2012 chrisakall.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/img_3412.jpg
tags: #Cape Town #south africa #township

ref. # 190c  2014 travel journal -Cape Town

corruption hotline Corruption Hotline, call 0800 701701 ...
  © Home Affairs, government of South Africa
tags: #Cape Town #South africa #corruption hotline

191  2014 travel journal -´A map of Africa´ by John Wolfe´, 1598

A map of Africa by John Wolfe, 1598 'A discription of Aegipt from Cair downeward ...' printed in London by Iohn Wolfe Graven by William Rogers
  © www.raremaps.com/gallery/detail/31984 Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.
tags: #John Wolfe #South Africa map, and Barry L. Ruderman
SEE for 192 => 031 and for 193 => 032
tags: #192 #193

ref. # 194  2014 travel journal -Horse Latitude

Horse Latitude "An alternative theory, of sufficient popularity to serve as an example of folk etymology, is that the term horse latitudes originates from when the Spanish transported horses by ship to their colonies in the West Indies and Americas. Ships often became becalmed in mid-ocean in this latitude, thus severely prolonging the voyage; the resulting water shortages made it impossible for the crew to keep the horses alive, and they would throw the dead or dying animals overboard"
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_latitudes
  ©: Fine, Oronce, 1494-1555. Le sphere de monde : proprement dicte Cosmographie : manuscript, 1549. MS Typ 57. Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/18260773
via: bibliodyssey.blogspot.nl/2010/11/celestial-mechanics.html

tags: #horse latitude

ref. # 194a  2014 travel journal -Horse lattitudes

Horse Latitudes The northern and southern Horse Latitudes are sometimes referred to as the "calms of Cancer" and the '"calms of Capricorn," respectively.
www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/global/circ.htm

"The name probably derives from the ´flogging a dead horse´ ritual, performed by seamen when crossing these latitudes. Sailors would parade an effigy of a horse around the ship´s deck and then chuck it overboard to mark the end of ´dead horse time´, a period of about two months in which they worked off their debt to the ship´s paymaster, incurred because they had spent their advance pay on wine, women and song."
link: www.encyclopedia.com/topic/horse_latitudes.aspx

  ©:
tags: #horse latitude

194b -'Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt'

link to the exhibition WATER -an artproject Meeresstille

Tiefe Stille herrscht im Wasser,
Ohne Regung ruht das Meer,
Und bekümmert sieht der Schiffer
Glatte Fläche ringsumher.
Keine Luft von keiner Seite!
Todesstille fürchterlich!
In der ungeheuern Weite
Reget keine Welle sich.

Glückliche Fahrt

Die Nebel zerreißen,
Der Himmel ist helle,
Und Äolus löset
Das ängstliche Band.
Es säuseln die Winde,
Es rührt sich der Schiffer.
Geschwinde! Geschwinde!
Es teilt sich die Welle,
Es naht sich die Ferne;
Schon seh' ich das Land!

Quiet Sea

Deep quiet rules the waters;
motionless, the sea reposes,
and the boatsman looks about with alarm
at the smooth surfaces about him.
No wind comes from any direction!
A deathly, terrible quiet!
In the vast expanse
not one wave stirs.

Fortunate Voyage
The mist is torn away,
The heavens turn bright,
And Aeolus unfastens
The bonds of fear.
There, the winds rustle,
the boatsman stirs.
Quickly! Quickly!
The waves rise up again.
The distant view draws close,
Land ho, I call!

Johann Wolfgang GOETHE, 'Meeresstille' and 'Glückliche Fahrt' (1795) in Sämtliche Werke vol. 4.1, p. 666 (K. Richter ed. 1988) (S.H. transl.)
"Almost as soon as the poems were published, composers saw its thematic potential. Beethoven, Schubert and Mendelssohn are among those who drew inspiration from it. Beethoven sent Goethe a letter dedicating the work to the poet, but Goethe, suffering a serious heart ailment, never responded."
  ©: text: Harper's Magazine
  ©: photo: Robert Schilder (2015) pfs0315
tags: #Meeresstille; #mm

ref. # 195  2014 travel journal -Sea Battle

Sea Battle Concept Art from Wallpapers.com
  ©: unknown
tags: #sea battle; #, #mm;

ref. # 195a  2014 travel journal -Claude Joseph Vernet

Claude-Joseph Vernet, Le Port neuf ou l'Arsenal de Toulon, pris dans l'angle du Parc d'Artillerie ´Le Port neuf ou l'Arsenal de Toulon, (pris dans l'angle du Parc d'Artillerie)´ 1755 more
"Claude-Joseph Vernet was the leading French landscape painter (with Hubert Robert) of the later 18th century. He achieved great celebrity with his topographical paintings and serene landscapes." www.nationalgallery.org.uk

"Vernet has attempted to bring the foreground of his work to life through painting a wide array of figures engaging in a variety of activities, endeavouring to convey a sense of the commotion and drama of France's seaports." Wikipedia

  ©: RS photographed in the Musee National de la Marine, Paris
tags: #sea battle #Vernet #Musee National de la Marine

ref. # 195b  2014 travel journal -Sea Battle

Sea Battle Scene from the movie ´Master & Commander´, from the Far Side of the World.
  ©:
tags: #sea battle #Master & Commander

195c  sea battle -'Dutch ships sail over Spanish galleys near the English coast'

Hendrik Cornelisz. Vroom Dutch ships sail over Spanish galleys near the English coast, 3 oktober 1602, Cornelis Hendriksz. Vroom, 1617
  ©: PD - Rijksmuseum
tags: #Cornelis Vroom

195d  sea battle -Battle of Trafalgar

Combat de Trafalgard "Episode du Combat de Trafalgard. Le Vaisseau le Redoutable de 74 canons, Commande par Mr Lucas, est aborde par les Vaisseaux de 120, le Victory et le Temeraire l'amiral Nelson, a ete tue dans cette action memorable, montant le Victory (le 5 Octobre 1805)".
P.C. Causse (artist). Original size: 220 mm x 290 mm

  ©: PD - National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London
tags: #battle of trafalgar

195f  2014 travel journal -'Battle of La Hogue'

'Battle of La Hogue' Sinking of the Spanish Silver Fleet at Vigo. Author/Creator: Lambert de HONDT (Flemish, d. bef.1665). Creation Date: c. 1700-1730/ Physical Desc.: Tapestry Materials/Techniques: unknown. Weaving Center: Brussels

"Survivors of shipwreck gathering on small craft (center, foreground), ship banner (R, middle ground), seascape with ships (L, background) Lambert de Hondt II designed the series "Art of War" (1696). This panel is a fragment of tapestry & the borders are missing (Cavallo).

Compare this with: Benajamin West, National Gallery of Art'the Battle of la Hogue' c 1778
oil on canvas overall: 152.7 x 214 cm (60 1/8 x 84 1/4 in.) framed: 180.3 x 241 cm (71 x 94 7/8 in.) Andrew W. Mellon Fund1959.8.1
" In 1692, Louis XIV of France had mounted an ill-fated attempt to return James II, a fellow Catholic, to the throne of England. In response, Britain and her Protestant allies, the Dutch, massed their fleets and engaged the enemy for five days off the northern French coast near La Hogue. "

  ©: The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles. Access/Rights: Digital images courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program.
tags: #battle of la Hogue #Lambert de Hondt #tapestry

197  2014 travel journal -Passing Lüderitz

Passing Luederitz "Just about every view in Lüderitz reveals its German Imperial and Art Nouveau architectural heritage. But the German history of the area goes a lot further.
The Herero and Namaqua Genocide is considered to have been the first genocide of the 20th century. It took place between 1904 and 1907 in German South-West Africa (modern day Namibia), during the Herero Wars.On 12 January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero, rebelled against German colonial rule. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans only to suffer a similar fate
  ©: text: Wikipedia


picture from the exhibition
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder pfs
tags:  #Luederitz #Namibia

ref. # 197a  2014 travel journal -Passing Lüderitz

Please see: #030 for much more on Lüderitz!

198  2014 travel journal -Walvis bay

Walvis bay sv ´Heinaste´, a factory trawler and the´ Green Selje, a refrigerated cargo ship working from Walvisbay. Note the seals on the ramp.
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Walvisbay #Green Selje #Heinaste

198a  2014 travel journal -Walvis bay

Walvis bay Walvis Bay scenery
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Walvisbay # #

198b  2014 travel journal -Walvis bay

Walvis bay bones on the beach 'The destiny of Walfish Bay' - Macdonald, William, 1875-1935
  ©: PD, more on Pinterest
tags: #Walvisbay # #

199  2014 travel journal -Walvisbay

Walvis bay Walvis bay Yacht Club
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Walvisbay

199a  2014 travel journal -Walvisbay

Walvis Bay Yacht Club Wharf or workshop at sea near the Walvis Bay Yacht Club
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Walvisbay

200  2014 travel journal properties of water

properties of water Water is cohesive and forms a kind of film on its surface
waterproperties
  ©: photograph from the exhibition Robert Schilder
tags: #properties of water

201  2014 travel journal properties of water

transparent ocean Water is transparent
  ©: photograph from the exhibition 2014 Robert Schilder
tags: #water #transparent

202  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund

streetvendor Namibia streetvendor at the taxistand/busstation of Swakopmund
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder
tags: #Swakopmund

202a  2014 travel journal Swakopmund

local art Swakopmund, nambia local art made from electrical wire
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder
tags: #Swakopmund

-photographs are available from: robertschilder@gmail.com

202b 2014 travel journal -White Lady of the Brandberg

White Lady Rockpainting, Swakopmund Museum, Namibia "The White Lady is a rock painting, located on a panel, also depicting other art work, on a small rock overhang, deep within Brandberg Mountain, Erongo, Namibia"
source: Wikipedia

"The Brandberg is a neo-granitic moutain standing on a foundation of basalt, indurated schist and quartzite, and is situated 70 miles from Cape Cross where the Portuguese ships of Diego Cam anchored in 1485. These mariners erected one of their stone crosses, making no effort to explore the interior and seeing none of the inhabitants. The Brandberg lies 250 miles by car northwest of Windhoek, the capital of South-West Africa, near the edge of the high sub-desertic plateau of meagre grass plains savannas, withe no permanent waterholes, in a region where there is gold, alluvial tin and copper. Vast Old Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age stations lie along the base of this range in the parts where there are sheets of granitic gravels, indurated schist and white vein quartz. This shows that the present desertic onditions have not always existed. The late Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age sites are even more frequent below the granitic rocks shelters near the temporary or seasonal waterholes, round wich there are sometimes abundant remains of Hottentot pottery."
source: Henri Breuil. The white lady of Brandberg, South-West Africa, her companions and her guards. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1948, III (9), pp.1-13

"A common misconception is that South African rock art depicts exotic 'foreigners'. People who believe the Bushmen to be mentally incapable of producing art, naturally have to find alternative artists to account for the immense quantity of rock art in southern Africa, and they seek evidence in the art itself. One of the most influential figures in the study of prehistoric art in Europe and elsewhere, the Abbe Henri Breuil, was responsible for some gross errors that are still encountered today. He believed that he could identify depictions of Minoans, Phoenicians and other Mediterranean people in southern African rock art. The painting that gave rise to his most spectacular blunder, the so-called White Lady of the Brandberg, has become a persistent legend, even enjoying the doubtful distinction of appearing in one of Erich von Daniken's books where the author implies that it depicts a being from outer space - the ultimate in exoticism. The story of its discovery and fame illustrates some disastrous trends that have damaged rock art research and discredited it in the eyes of professional archaeologists and other interested people."
read on: Adapted from Images of Power: Understanding Bushman Rock Art by J.D. Lewis-Williams and T.A. Dowson.http://yggtwo.tripod.com/whitelady.htm
  ©: picture: Jimfbleak Wikipedia
tags: #Swakopmund Museum #White lady of the Brandberg

202c  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund Museum

Swakopmund Museum Himba "The Herero and the Owambo, no longer just poorly paid migrant labourers, represent the backbone of modern Namibia. Their cousins, the Himba, still wear traditional clothing in the remote and wild Kaokoveld; they are the last nomadic, herding peoples in southern Africa. The oldest inhabitants of Namibia are the Bushmen, or San. Today, Botswana and Namibia are the last refuge of these ancient and fragile tribes, struggling to keep a sense of identity in the modern world. Namibia are the last refuge of these ancient and fragile tribes, struggling to keep a sense of identity in the modern world."
from: www.footprinttravelguides.com
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder (picture taken in the Swakopmund Museum)
tags: #Swakopmund Museum #Himba

202d  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund Museum

Koos van Ellinckhuijzen, Swakopmund Museum, Namibia 3-D vision and Stereoscopy with a Brewster stereoscope
Koos van Ellinckhuijzen is a Namibian artist. He is most noted for his work on Namibian and South West African postage stamps. He has exhibited in both Namibia and the US. Adelheid Lilienthal, in Art in Namibia has noted the scientific accuracy of his designs, their clean lines and his use of watercolor techniques (from Wikipedia)
link: www.pinterest.com
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder (picture taken in the Swakopmund Museum)
tags: #Swakopmund Museum

202e  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund

Swakopmund architecture typical Swakopmund architecture
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder
tags: #Swakopmund #architecture #Namibia

202f  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund Ocean view

Swakopmund ocean view Ocean view
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder
tags: #Swakopmund #ocean #Namibia

203  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund

Swakopmund Swakopmund from the pier

"Surrounded on three sides by the arid Namib Desert and on the west side by the cold waters of the South Atlantic, Swakopmund is surely one of the most unusual and fascinating colonial towns in the whole of Africa. In a period of a little more than 25 years the German Imperial Government built a succession of extravagant buildings, which today represent one of the best-preserved collections of German colonial architecture still standing. When approached from the desert, especially during the morning fog, the turrets, towers and pastel-coloured buildings on the skyline appear as a hazy mirage, and the quirky town comes as quite as surprise on the barren coastline."
text from: www.footprinttravelguides.com
  ©: 2014 Robert Schilder
tags: #Swakopmund #Namibia

203a  2014 travel journal -Swakopmund Museum

Swakopmund Museum, Namibia "Die Helden des Burenkrieges" (the Heroes of the Boer War) depicting Chris. de Wet & M.T.Steijn
Is this the same as the following item?:
When you know more about this artwork, please let me know (robertschilder&gmail.com)
Musical Box ?
DIE HELDEN DES BURENKRIEGES n.p.: circa 1902, Dark wood, 48 by 66cm, depth: 12cm, surround with glass front, recessed satin draped stage with a highly decorated foliate proscenium to enclose painted porcelain figures of Gens. De La Rey and Botha standing on titled base. Both with rifles and bandoliers. See Oosthuizen, P. - Boer War Memorabilia, The Collectors´ Auction guide p436: R6 000 - R8 000
www.stephanwelzandco.co.za
  ©:2014 Robert Schilder (picture taken in the Swakopmund Museum)
tags: #Swakopmund Museum #Boeren oorlog #Namibia

203b  2014 travel journal -Der Freiheitskampf der Buren

Der Freiheitskampf der Buren Scheibert J. Major z.D.
Verlag von A. Schröder, Berlin W. 1902
  ©: www.zvab.com
see also: www.kaiserscross.com
tags:  #Boeren oorlog #Namibia

204 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena

A View of the Town and Island of St Helena in the Atlantic Ocean belonging to the English East India Company Copper engraving, ´A View of the Town and Island of St Helena in the Atlantic Ocean belonging to the English East India Company´
Published by A. Hogg c. 1790 Thornton, engraver, fl. 1790

  ©: Image in public domain due to age themaritimegallery.co.uk

tags: #Saint Helena

See also #049

ref. # 204a 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena

Saint Helena 1790 Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 4,000 kilometres east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres west of the southern coast of Africa. Wikipedia

  ©:
tags:  #Saint Helena

ref. # 204b 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena

Link: sthelenatourism.com
St Helena Tourism, The Canister, Jamestown, St Helena STHL 1ZZ, South Atlantic Ocean, E-mail: enquiries@tourism.co.sh

  ©:
tags: #Saint Helena

204c 2014 travel journal -'Dutch Fleet before Saint Helena"

painting by Cornelis Verbeeck, "Dutch Fleet before Saint Helena" (een retourvloot ter rede van Saint Helena) Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam
sail.robertschilder.com/voyage
  ©: photograph Robert schilder 2014 in the museum of Saint Helena

See also: www.de-paula-lopes.nl

tags: #Saint Helena #scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam

204d 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena, Dutch Territorial stone

"In the office of the archives of Saint Helena we found this territorial stone. It looks as if the text was never properly finished, Did they run out of time? Disturbed by the Portuguese? Or argueing about whose name should come first. And first of all, where is the date?" RS
This is the text as on the stone:
PER ORDER VAN DE WELEDELE HOOGMOOGENDE HEEREN DE HEEREN S.G. NEEDERBURG EN S.H. FRYKENIUS COMMISSARISEN GENERAL VAN NEEDERLANDS INDIEN EN CABO DE GOEDE HOOP POSSESIE GENOEMEN VAN DIT LAND EN EYLANDEN UYT NAAMEN

Lion clutching 7 arrows = seven counties (Zeven Provinciën) Marks on top of stone indicate PB and IACN. This stone was bought of a Private owner residing Nr. Knollcombes by SHG

St. Helena Archives (Miss Karen Henry), The Castle, Jamestown, St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean, STHL IZZ archives@sainthelena.gov.sh
  ©: photo: Robert Schilder 2014
tags:  #Dutch Territorial stone #Saint Helena #Neederburg, #Frykenius, #St. Helena, #OIC, #territorial stone

204e 2014 travel journal -Fusta

Fusta with Portuguese pavilion in a hand-colored engraving from Jan Huygen Linschoten's Itinerario.

see also item #051above.

The caption on the picture says in Dutch: "Fusta, which was used by the Portuguese and their enemies, the Malabares, for trading and warfare, and in Latin Swift-sailing ships or biremes, which the Portuguese and their enemies, the Malabars, use for war and for transporting goods."
  ©: Source: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Nederland (picture in PB)
tags:  #fusta #Jan Huygen van Linschoten

ref. # 204f 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena's diversity of fortune

Town children, Saint Helena "Town children, about 1890", Poor children may not be typical at this time, but they do show the diversity of fortune that existed.
Photograph by Tom Jackson.
  ©: reproduced in the Saint Helena Museum.
tags:  #Saint Helena Museum

ref. # 204g 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena, Napoleon Street

Napoleon Street Napoleon street, Jamestown, 1890, Photograph by Tom Jackson.
  ©: reproduced in the Saint Helena Museum.
tags:  #Saint Helena Museum #Jamestown

204h 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena

map Saint Helena by Jan Huygen  van Linschoten map of Saint Helena, part of "Itinerario, voyage ofte schipvaert, naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien inhoudende een corte beschryvinghe der selver landen ende zee-custen. Jan Huygen van Linschoten. - Amstelredam, Cornelis Claesz, 1596. 2º. 1702 B 4
  ©: reproduction taken in the Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam
tags:  #Jan Huygen van Linschoten #Saint Helena

ref. # 204i 2014 travel journal -Saint Helena, Anglo-Boer War

Anglo-Boerenoorlog (1899-1902) prisoners of war arriving in Jamestown, Saint Helena Anglo-Boerenoorlog (1899-1902) prisoners of war arriving in Jamestown. St. Helena had to house nearly 6,000 Boer prisoners-of-war; probably the greatest logistical challenge the island had ever faced.
text (dutch) www.dbnl.org
  ©: more here:  sthelenatourism.com/blog/remembering-the-boer-prisoners and here  www.angloboerwar.com, sainthelenaisland.info/boerprisoners.htm
tags:  #boerenoorlog #Boer War #Jamestown #Saint #Helena

205  2014 travel journal -arrival at Saint Helena

arrival at Saint Helena Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, Saint Helena was garrisoned by the British during the 17th century (to be used as a refreshment station for ships travelling to and from the East). It acquired fame as the place of Napoleon Bonaparte's exile, from 1815 until his death in 1821, but its importance as a port of call declined after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Saint Helena has three smaller dependencies: Ascension Island is the site of a US Air Force auxiliary airfield; Tristan da Cunha is home to a very small community reliant on fishing for income; Gough Island has a meteorological station.
wikitravel.org

  ©: website www.sy-gemini.nl
tags: #Napoleon #Saint Helena

206  2014 travel journal -Napoleon in Longwood House

Napoleon in Longwood House Portrait of Napoleon in Longwood House, artist unknown
  ©: photograph Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Napoleon #St.Helena

206a  2014 travel journal -Saint Helena -Napoleon curiosities

"Napoleon 1820, from drawing made by Captain Henry Duncan Dodgin of 66th Regiment. I have serious doubts about the very unflattering portrait with the German inscription, allegedly painted by Captain Marryat in 1821. Napoleon ventured out so little in the weeks before his death that it would have been near impossible to have made an accurate sketch of him, and I would be surprised if he ever willingly posed for one of his captors."
helena186.rssing.com

  ©:
tags: #Napoleon #curiosities

206b  2014 travel journal -Saint Helena -Napoleon curiosities

Napoleon Saint Helena postcard old postcard, appeared in more languages
  ©: no further information available
tags: #Napoleon #curiosities #postcard

206c  2014 travel journal -Saint Helena -Napoleon curiosities

Napoleon deathbed Saint Helena   ©:
tags: #Napoleon #curiosities

206d  2014 travel journal -The death of Napoleon Bonaparte at St Helena in 1821

The death of Napoleon Bonaparte at St Helena in 1821 The death of Napoleon Bonaparte at St Helena in 1821. Lithograph after Baron Steuben. Iconographic Collections Keywords: Francesco Antommarchi; Charles Auguste Guillaume Henri François Louis Steuben; Francis Burton; Archibald Arnott; Napoleon Bonaparte
  ©: Wikipedia Creative Commons, This file comes from Wellcome Images, a website operated by Wellcome Trust, a global charitable foundation based in the United Kingdom. Refer to Wellcome blog post
tags: #Napoleon #Saint Helena

206e  2014 travel journal - "Napoleon Bonaparte and child" postcard

Napoleon Saint Helena postcard Most curious postcard! ..
  ©: sainthelenaisland.info

tags: #Napoleon #Saint Helena #curiosities

206f  2014 travel journal - book: "Napoleon at Saint Helena'

Napoleon at Saint Helena Interesting anecdotes and remarkable conversations of the Emperor during the five and a half years of his captivity collected from the memorials of Las Casas, O'Meara, Moutholon, Antommarch&hacute;i, and others. By John S. C. Abbott, with illustrations; 1855; Harper & Brothers, New York. Written in English
  ©: book is in Public Domain: publicdomainreview.org
tags: #Napoleon #Saint Helena #John S.C. Abbott

206g  2014 travel journal --Saint Helena -Napoleon, Briars House

statue of Napoleon at Briars House, Saint Helena Statue of Napoleon at Briars House, Saint Helena
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014

tags: #Napoleon #Saint Helena #Briars House

Please see also #050

207  Ocean Memory -Morgan Freeman: 'Through the Wormhole'

water memory "Is the Ocean a Superorganism? If all living things have a metabolism, does that include the ocean?"
"The ocean has been a big player in the history of the Earth," he says. "There are at least five times that we know of that the ocean has wiped out 99 percent of the species alive on the planet. Then we discovered this amazing story of how the ocean has its own nervous system and started wondering whether the ocean might be a thinking being."
  ©: www.sciencechannel.com

tags: #morgan freeman; #wormhole; #

207a  Ocean Memory -'All Water Has A Perfect Memory'

All Water Has A Perfect Memory "I began composing all water has a perfect memory at the MacDowell Colony as an emotional response to fellow 'colonist' Natalia Almada's documentary film of the same name that explores family memories of her two year old sister's drowning. The title is drawn from an essay written by Toni Morrison, in which she speaks of the Mississippi River's ability to conjure memories:"
  ©: David DZUBAY

"All water has a perfect memory and is forever trying to get back to where it was."
  ©: Toni MORRISON

tags: #quote; #Dzubay; #Morrison #memory

207b  Ocean Memory -'the Ocean is alive'

the Ocean is Alive 'the Ocean is Alive
it breathes
it reacts
it has a memory'
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014 'Baia do Sancho, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil'
recommended by Tripadvisor as no.1 attraction on Fernando de Noronha
tags:  #Baia do Sancho; #Fernando de Noronha

208  2014 travel journal - enroute from Saint Helena to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

enroute from Saint Helena to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil enroute from Saint Helena to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags:  #Saint Helena; #Fernando de Noronha

209  2014 travel journal - Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

Fernando de Noronha, Brazil Île de Fernando de Noronha, possession Brèsilienne
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags:  # #Fernando de Noronha

see also: #055: when Thomas MORE wrote his famous book 'Utopia' he was inspired by Fernando de Noronha

209a  2014 travel journal - Zeppelin-Luftschiff und Dornier-Flugzeug vor Fernando de Noronha 1936

Fernando de Noronha, Brazil Zeppelin-Luftschiff und Dornier-Flugzeug vor Fernando de Noronha 1936
Ölgemäde von Alex Kircher see also Pinterest
  ©: PD VintagePostcards-Archive, uploaded by snickebaer
tags:  #postcard; #Fernando de Noronha

210  Ocean Memory - 2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

Howard Altman *the Howard Altman poem in the booklet ('In this House') , is taken from blog.geogarage.com
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de #Noronha #Brazil #Howard Altman

210a  2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

Nossa Senhora dos Remédios Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de #Noronha #Brazil #Nossa #Senhora #dos #Remédios

210b  2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de #Noronha #Brazil

210c  2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

'Nossa Senhora dos Remédios', Vila dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha 'Nossa Senhora dos Remédios', Vila dos Remédios
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de #Noronha #Brazil #Nossa #Senhora #dos #Remedios #Vila

210d  2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

Igreja 'Nossa Senhora dos Remédios', Vila dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha 'Nossa Senhora dos Remédios', Vila dos Remédios
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de Noronha #Brazil #Nossa #Senhora dos #Remedios' #Vila dos Remédios

211  2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha
  ©: Robert schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de Noronha #Brazil

211a  2014 travel journal -Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha "With its crystalline water, rich marine life and spectacular tropical landscapes, this archipelago is one of the most stunning places in Brazil. The marine and coastal environment is well preserved, thanks largely to the Fernando de Noronha Marine National Park and conservation projects based here."
text from: www.lonelyplanet.com
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fernando de Noronha #Brazil

212  2014 travel journal -Fortaleza

Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil See the travel blog of the GEMINI at sy-gemini.nl/14week13a.html

  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fortaleza #Brazil

212a  2014 travel journal -Fortaleza

Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil   ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fortaleza #Brazil

212b  2014 travel journal -Fortaleza

Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil   ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fortaleza #Brazil

212c  2014 travel journal -Fortaleza

Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil   ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fortaleza #Brazil

212d  2014 travel journal -Fortaleza

Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil   ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fortaleza #Brazil

212e  2014 travel journal -Fortaleza

Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil   ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Fortaleza #Brazil

213 2014 travel journal -Nova Reperta

Nova Reperta Nova Reperta Frontispiece   ©: Creative Commons
tags: #Nova Reperta #Frontispiece

ref. # 213a  2014 travel journal -Map of Brazil, by Luiz Teixeira, ca. 1586

Note the Portuguese captaincies, or land grants to loyal nobles, along the Brazilian coast. Of the first 15 charters, five were not colonized, 8 were of limited success due to Indian attacks, and only two of these - São Vicente and Pernambuco - were successful right away.
Map reproduced by David Woodward (editor), The History of Cartography, Volume 3: Cartography in the European Renaissance, 2007
via:urbangeographies.tumblr.com

tags: Map of Brazil, by Luiz Teixeira, ca. 1586

ref. # 213b  2014 travel journal -the Miller Atlas

the Miller atlas 1519
(image: Lopo Homem, Pedro Reinel, Jorge Reinel, Antònio de Holanda)
via:visualoop.com/blog/23720/vintage-infodesign-85
tags: #the Miller Atlas

214  2014 travel journal -Cumbuco

Cumbuco, Caucaia, Ceara, Brazil Cumbuco, Caucaia - State of Ceará, Brazil, read more: www.cumbuco.com; www.cumbuco-brazil.com
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Combuco #Cumbuco #Caucaia #Ceara #Brazil

214a  2014 travel journal -Cumbuco

Cumbuco, Caucaia, Ceara, Brazil Cumbuco, Caucaia - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: ##Combuco #Cumbuco #Caucaia #Ceara #Brazil

214b  2014 travel journal -Cumbuco

Cumbuco, Caucaia, Ceara, Brazil Cumbuco, Caucaia - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Combuco #Cumbuco #Caucaia #Ceara #Brazil

214c  2014 travel journal -Cumbuco

Cumbuco, Caucaia, Ceara, Brazil Cumbuco, Caucaia - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Combuco #Cumbuco #Caucaia #Ceara #Brazil

214d  2014 travel journal -Cumbuco

Cumbuco, Caucaia, Ceara, Brazil Cumbuco, Caucaia - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Combuco #Cumbuco #Caucaia #Ceara #Brazil

214e  2014 travel journal -Cumbuco -Yago Turismo

Cumbuco, Caucaia, Ceara, Brazil traditional sailingboat Cumbuco, Caucaia - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Combuco #Cumbuco #Caucaia #Ceara #Brazil #sailing

215  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara is located around 300 km west of Fortaleza. Untill about 20 years ago, it was still a secluded and simple fishing village. Since 1984, the area was declared Environmental Protection Area (APA) and became a National Park in 2002.
Read more: www.jericoacoara.com (the official website of paradise ...)
  © -photographs are available from: robertschilder@gmail.com 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215a  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215b 2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215c  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
local art made in plastic bottles
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215d  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215e  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215f  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215g  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215h  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215i  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215j  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

215k  2014 travel journal -Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil Jericoacoara Beach, Jijoca de Jericoacoara - State of Ceará, Brazil
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Jericoacoara #Ceara #Brazil

216  2014 travel journal -history of the Atlantic

What is really a part of a testpage for printing ink, shows the dark and complex history of the discovery of the Atlantic Ocean.
  ©: Robert Schilder
tags: #history #Atlantic #Ocean

219  2015 travel journal -Sint Maarten

Caribbean map Theodore de Bry Map of the Caribbean Islands and the American State of Florida by Theodore de Bry
  ©: Public Domain
tags: #Caribbean map #Theodore de #Bry

219a  2015 travel journal - map Theodore de Bry

map Theodore de Bry
  ©: PD
tags: #Sint Maarten #cariben #map #Theodore de #Bry
more about Theodore de bry at Pinterest

219b  2015 travel journal -Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten architecture
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Sint #Maarten #architekture

219c  2015 travel journal -Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten architecture
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Sint #Maarten#architekture

219d  2015 travel journal -Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten architecture
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Sint Maarten #architekture

220  2015 travel journal -Antilles map

Map of Antilles (wp-EN) Caribbean (wp-EN) with french names made by Alexandre Vuillemin in 1843 extracted from his "Atlas universel de géographie ancienne et moderne á l´usage des pensionnat"
  ©: Public Domain
tags: #map Caribbean #Antilles

220a  2015 travel journal -Sint Maarten gold digger

Sint Maarten golddigger The front / end of the only runway of Sint Maarten airport is at a locally well known beach, a lovely place for sunbathing and plane spotting at the same time. This is where I found this golddigger with his metal detector. He comes there year after year, finding coins and other bits and pieces.

  ©: 2015 Robert Schilder
tags: #Caribbean golddigger

220b  2015 travel journal -Francisco Coreal

Francisco Coreal 'Travels of Francois Coreal to the West Indies', Containing the Most Remarkable Things He has Seen on His Voyage from 1666 to 1697
This three-volume work by a Spanish author of uncertain identity, Francisco (François) COREAL, was published in Amsterdam in 1722. It purports to be the French translation of a first-hand account, in Spanish, of multiple voyages to Brazil and Spanish America undertaken by Coreal over a span of 30 years, from 1666-97. Coreal's supposed voyages cover about half of the three volumes. The rest of the work is comprised of a heterogeneous set of texts taken from the travelogues of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) and several of his contemporaries. Many scholars believe that Coreal was a fictitious name for a writer who may never have traveled to the lands described in the book. This theory is supported by the fact that no Spanish original of the work has been found and that a great part of Coreal's narrative is plagiarized from an influential work of 1578 by the French explorer and writer Jean de Léry (1536-1613), Histoire d'un voyage faict en la terre du Bresil, autrement dite Amerique (History of a voyage to the land of Brazil, also called America). In some instances, Coreal expanded on Léry's text by adding his own observations.
  ©: PD
tags: #Francisco #Coreal

 



for ref. #221 see ref. #059, maps in the times of Columbus

for ref. #222 see ref. #060, portrait of Columbus


for ref. #223 see ref. #061, Slave Trade

for ref. #224 see ref. #062, Slavery in Modern times

225  2015 travel journal -Dolphins

selfie with dolphins ´selfie´ with the dolphins   ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #dolphins

225a  2015 travel journal -Dolphins

dolphins "Dolphins 'hear' using echolocation (=SONAR), which uses high pitched frequencies send out by the dolphins. They hear by collecting the sound in their jawbone which transfers the sound waves into the inner ear. Loud underwater noise from sonar tesing by the navy disturbs whales & dolphins. Mass strandings have increased. Scientists think the sounds scare animals into shallow waters where they can become disoriented and wash ashore". nbcnews.com

"I know why the dolphins play
And laugh and squeal every day.
Look it up and you will see
They rape humans in the sea."

Kissy Marie', www.hellopoetry.com

Dolphins 'resort to rape'
"Dolphins appear to have a darker side, according to scientists who suggest they can resort to 'rape' to assert authority."
www.telegraph.co.uk

photograph from the portfolio www.WATER-artproject.com
  ©:2015 Robert Schilder
tags: #dolphins #sound

226  2015 travel journal -Fish Scale

fish scale ".. on-going research is being carried out to fabricate novel bioscaffolds and coating materials for biomedical applications that utilize fish scale-derived materials .. ", "also .. Also, since one of the natural functions of fish scales is to act as a protective shield against predators and injury, on-going projects under the Young Defence Scientists Programme (YDSP) include the development of fish scale-inspired body armor, in which the theme of biomimetics is explored. By studying the composition and structural properties of fish scales in more detail, it may be possible to develop man-made body armor that mimics the protective function of fish scales."
www.ntu.edu.sg

  ©: Wikipedia, and www.earthlife.net
tags: #fish #scale

226a  2015 travel journal -Fish Leather

fish leather ".. Nanai leather is made of salmon skin. Formerly a waste product of fish canneries. Nanai has developed an eco-friendly process to tan and dye the skins, while retaining their pigmentation and characteristic texture. The production of this salmon skin is chrome-free, relying instead on vegetable tanning. ..".


  ©: materia.nl

To Reduce Waste & Encourage Sustainable Fishing, We're Upcycling Sustainable Ocean Byproducts! tidalvisionusa.com
tags: #fish #leather

227  2015 travel journal - pain -Do fish feel pain?

"Finding out what triggers or contributes to animal suffering allows us to find ways of avoiding it." It is time to include fish in our animal welfare discussions.
Victoria BRAITHWAITE explores the science and the ethics behind fish pain and suffering in her groundbreaking work, Do Fish Feel Pain? Braithwaite is a Professor of Fisheries and Biology at Pennsylvania State University, and in her book she summarizes research - much of it her own - on pain and suffering in fish.

In 2003, scientists from Edinburgh claimed to have found the first conclusive evidence of pain perception in fish. They discovered 58 receptors in the heads of rainbow trout responded to electric and chemical shocks. When the scientists injected bee venom into the lips of some fish, they found they demonstrated a rocking motion - similar to that seen in mammals. 'The trout injected with the acid that were also observed to rub their lips onto the gravel in their tank...these do not appear to be reflex responses,' said Dr Lynne SNEDDON. She added the study 'fulfils the criteria for animal pain. But plenty of scientists disagree and argue that just because fish respond to a stimulus, they do not necessarily compute it as pain. Some argue that fish simply do not have the neuro-physiological capacity to be aware of pain, and that their reactions are measured according to human criteria. Last year, scientists from Wisconsin said fish do not have a brain system or enough sensory nerve receptors to experience suffering. While fish may struggle to get free, the scientists say this does not mean they are in pain. Instead, they show 'little effect' from injuries and toxins that would leave humans in agony. www.dailymail.co.uk

Totoya HOKKEI (1780-1850), Itonaga Ryûeshi, Japanese. Title: "Still Life with Fish, Scallions and Large Knife". (circa 1830) Medium: Woodblock print, shikishiban format; deluxe printing. Dimensions: 19.7 x 19.2 cm (7.8 x 7.6"). Current location: Brooklyn Museum (no copyright constrictions)
Reproduction and information: Wikipedia
tags: #Totoya Hokkei #fish

227a  2015 travel journal - pain -Do fish feel pain?

An expert said that fish have very good memories, live in complex social communities where they keep track of individuals and can learn from one another. They develop cultural traditions and can even recognise themselves and others
Read more: www.dailymail.co.uk

In 2003, scientists from Edinburgh claimed to have found the first conclusive evidence of pain perception in fish. They discovered 58 receptors in the heads of rainbow trout responded to electric and chemical shocks. When the scientists injected bee venom into the lips of some fish, they found they demonstrated a rocking motion - similar to that seen in mammals. ´The trout injected with the acid that were also observed to rub their lips onto the gravel in their tank...these do not appear to be reflex responses,' said Dr. Lynne SNEDDON. She added the study ´fulfils the criteria for animal pain. But plenty of scientists disagree and argue that just because fish respond to a stimulus, they do not necessarily compute it as pain. Some argue that fish simply do not have the neuro-physiological capacity to be aware of pain, and that their reactions are measured according to human criteria. Last year, scientists from Wisconsin said fish do not have a brain system or enough sensory nerve receptors to experience suffering. While fish may struggle to get free, the scientists say this does not mean they are in pain. Instead, they show ´little effect´ from injuries and toxins that would leave humans in agony.
  ©: www.dailymail.co.uk

Researcher Stephanie YUE of the University of Guelph in Canada shares her team's surprising findings on fish sentience and ponders the ethical implications.
It is not uncommon to find a variety of whole fish displayed on ice at any average grocery store. Yet practically every other type of meat is cut into portions and wrapped in clean packages that bear no physical semblance to the animal from whom they came. While most people in our Western culture would find it disturbing to see whole cows and pigs on sale for meat, most have no problem with the sight of a large salmon laid out in a similar manner. awionline.org

  ©: image: Wikipedia
tags: #fish #pain

227b  2015 travel journal - pain -Eating live seafood

eating live seafood The practice of eating live seafood, such as fish, crab, oysters, young shrimp, or young octopus, is widespread.
  ©: Public Domain, Jan STEEN (1625/1626-1679) "Girl eating oysters". (circa 1658) oil on panel, 20.5 cm x 14.5 cm.. Current location: Mauritshuis, the Hague
Wikipedia


tags: #seafood, #jan steen #oyster

228  2015 travel journal - smell -the smell (odor) of fish ..

The smell of fish (fish odor) is not due to the fact that the fish died and then begin it´s decomposition but is due to trimethylamine, a compound that is volatile form after the death of fish, some proteolytic bacteria (demolition of protein structures) of the genera Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Bacillus putrefaciens Altreromonas and begin to colonize the meat.
The process continues on a regular basis over the period of edibility of fish, and this explains why the smell (fish odor) increases with time. Then stabilizes.
The measure of the amount of trimethylamine is the most common for determining the freshness of the fish: if less than 5.10 mg / 100 g, according to experts FAO (UN Food and Agriculture) should be marketed.
The intensity of the smell indicates the degree of freshness and therefore quality fish.
  ©: www.uknowy.com

The Chemical Compounds Behind the Scent of the Sea

  ©: image (probably ..) "a school of herring passing under a brown moon' by Max ERNST (1965) on Pinterest
tags: #fish, #smell

ref. # 228a  2015 travel journal - smell -How do fish... Smell?

how do fish smell A fish's nose is made up of two openings (nostrils) on the head. The sense of smell is very important to a fish, because it helps them find their food and warns them of danger.
  ©: Texas, Parks & Wildlife
tags: #fish #smell

ref. # 229  2015 travel journal -Koopmans Frisian 46

Koopmans frisian 46 technical drawing sy-Gemini
  ©: Koopmans jachtbouw
tags: #Koopmans #sy-Gemini

ref. # 230  2015 travel journal -sy-GEMINI at Kalahabi

sy-Gemini at anchor at Teluk Kalahabi, Indonesia sy-Gemini at anchor at Teluk Kalahabi, Indonesia
  ©: Robert Ayotte (sy-Caminata)
tags: #Gemini #kalahabi #sy-Caminata

ref. # 231  2015 travel journal -Bermda -Spanish Dubloon

  ©: www.history.org
tags: #dubloon #gold #coin

231a  2015 travel journal -Bermuda -Bermuda Sloops

Bermuda Sloops "Bermuda settlement began in 1609 with the wreck of the 'Sea Venture', an English ship sailing to the failing colony of Jamestown, Virginia. After surviving a savage hurricane, the castaway crew and colonists spent 10 months at Bermuda building two vessels to continue their voyage.
Little did they know how they would alter the fate of Jamestown and that their accounts of the storm and Bermuda would capture England's attention, leading to the island's permanent colonisation just three years later."

Bermuda Sloops - Elizabeth & Mary and Elizabeth - off St. David´s Head. c. 1747, by Deryck Foster.
  ©: photographed in the National Museum of Bermuda, 1983 Bank of Bermuda Foundation
tags: #National Museum of Bermuda

231b  2015 travel journal -Bermuda -Bermuda busstop

Bermuda busstop   ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Bermuda busstop

231c  2015 travel journal -Bermuda -Pewter Spoons Sea Venture 1609

pewter spoons from the National Museum of Bermuda "And now your daily pewter spoon has turned into a museum item. I think the bends in the handles are made intentionally, they don't look very convenient, those handles. Strange to think who has been eating what with these spoons and under what circumstances." from the 'Sea Venture' 1609
text: RS

Pewter spoons, Sea Venture, 1609
"The fig-shaped bowls, decorative 'knobs' or handle ends, and Tudor Rose touchmarks on these spoons helped confirm the date of the wreck. Pewter and silver spoons were a common luxury, often given as wedding or christening gifts."
text NMB

  ©: Robert Schilder 2015 photographed in the National Museum of Bermuda
tags: #National Museum of Bermuda.

ref. # 231d  2015 travel journal -Bermuda -Cowrie shells

Cowrie shells Cowrie shells, not found naturally in Atlantic waters, are perhaps the strongest evidence of participation in the African slave trade. Used as payment for servants, porters and slaves, they were the currency of choice among traders on the West African Coast.
  ©: #Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Cowrie shells #slave trade

ref. # 232  2015 travel journal -Bermuda -Wreck of the 'Sea Venture' heading to Jamestown

Wreck of the 'Sea Venture' heading to Jamestown Wreck of the 'Sea Venture' heading to Jamestown (656969496-1366x768_sail_ship_storm.jpg) Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890-1973)

SOURCES:
William Strachey's Eyewitness Account of the 1610 Wreck of The Sea Venture Heading to Jamestown bjws.blogspot.nl

The shipwreck has an historical context.
The Loss of the Sea-Adventure: the crew survived the shipwreck and returned home. An account of their exploits, which was entitled 'A Discovery of the Bermudas',was published in 1610. It is not unreasonable to think that Shakespeare had the incident in mind when writing the play , particularly since he refers to the 'still-vexed Bermoothes'.
https://englishtutorbournemouth.co.uk
The Sea Venture was a brand new ship when it set sail for Virginia in 1609, with 150 settlers aboard, the flagship of a nine-vessel flotilla under the command of Sir George Somers.
Hit by a storm on 25th July, the ship and her company fought winds and giant waves for three days as leaks sprang up between her imperfectly caulked timbers. All hands were set to bailing, but still the waters rose.
Finally on the morning of 28th July, with an exhausted crew and the ship about to founder, Somers steered into the feared reefs of The Devil's Islands, as sailors called them then.
bermuda-trees-and-flags-at-dawn-by-roadsofstone.jpgBermuda (as we know it now) had been discovered by Juan de Bermudez over a hundred years before, but was inhabited only by the hogs left for provisions by past seafarers. The new arrivals called the island Virgineola - little Virginia.
Wading ashore at Discovery Bay, near the modern airport, the crew made settlement at a site they named St. George.
There they set about building a new ship from the fragments of the old, augmented with new Bermuda cedar. An advance party set out to Virginia in the Sea Ventures long boat, rigged up with a sail. Those men were never seen again.
Nine months later, two ships were ready. The Deliverance, and the Patience finally arrived in Jamestown on 23rd May, 1610. But the sorry colonists they found there were fast running out of food, a plight only briefly alleviated by the arrival of fresh provisions from England.
(dawn-on-coco-beach-bermuda-by-roadsofstone.jpg) Somers left for Bermuda aboard the Patience once more, to gather new supplies, but he died there before he could return. His body was transported to Lyme Regis, pickled in a barrel, and his heart was buried on the islands, then renamed The Somers Isles in his honour.
Amongst the other voyagers on the Sea Venture, John Rolfe had seen his wife and son die on Bermuda. Rolfe chose to stay on in Jamestown and later married the Powhatan princess, Pocohontas.
Stephen Hopkins, almost hanged in Bermuda for mutiny, returned to England some years later to find that his wife had died in 1613. Together with his children and new wife, he sailed for the New World in 1620 aboard the Mayflower.
A vivid account of the Sea Venture's shipwreck written by William Strachey in July 1610 probably formed one of the sources for The Tempest, Shakespeare's last play, first performed in London on 1st November, 1611.
source: roadsofstone.com

see also: bjws.blogspot.nl and 1609chronology.blogspot.nl, www.lookbermuda.com/seaventure
  ©: the Sea Venture National Museum of Bermuda
tags: #Sea #Venture #Jamestown #Bermuda'#Maritime #Museum

235  2015 travel journal -Antique Zeno map by Ruscelli

Map XXV from Ruscelli's Geographia taken from Gastaldi's 1548 Ptolemy; is the reduced version of the landmark Zeno map showing the mythical islands in the North Atlantic and small coastlines of Labrador (Estotiland) and possibly Newfoundland (Drogeo). Originally produced in woodcut form, it is 'one of the most interesting and controversial documents in the history of maritime exploration [Brown]'. Reputed to show the discoveries made in Greenland and the North Atlantic in 1380 by the Venetians Nicolo / Antonio Zeno. Robert Herrich, England, 1628

  ©:www.maps-charts.com
tags:  #Zeno map #Ruscelli

235a  2015 travel journal -ZENO map

Zeno Map In 1558, Nicolo Zeno published 'I Commentarii del Viaggio', about the travels of Nicolo and Antonio Zeno. It told how in 1400 the Zeno brothers had sailed, in the employ of Henry Sinclair, the Earl of Orkney, to Iceland, Greenland and elsewhere in the North Atlantic. Two islands they supposedly visited were Frisland (on the way to Greenland) and Icaria (somewhere past Greenland). They also heard about lands to the west of Greenland, called Estotiland and Drogeo, and may have sailed in search of these lands.
ZENO map by Ruscelli, 'Septentrionalium Partium Nova Tabula', Venice 1561
But thou at home without or tyde or gale
Canst in thy Map securely saile
Seeing those painted Countries...
And from thy Compass taking small advice,
Buy'st Travell at the lowest price.

Robert Herrich, England, 1628

  ©: The International Map Collectors' Soceity
tags: #Zeno #Map #Septentrionalium Partium Nova Tabula

236  2015 travel journal -Atlantis

Atlantis according to Plato The only mention of Atlantis by name is in Plato's Dialogues (written around 360 B.C.): 'Timaeus', which was a very complicated attempt to explain the universe, and 'Critias', which has dozens of precise details about what Atlantis looked like, and where it may have been located in relation to other landmarks in the ancient world. It was 'Critias', in particular, that set people off thinking that Atlantis actually existed.
  ©: news.nationalgeographic.com
tags: #Atlantis #Plato
ATLANTIPEDIA is aimed at providing the most comprehensive source of information regarding the development of ATLANTIS theories: atlantipedia.ie
classicalwisdom.com

ref. # 236a  2015 travel journal -Atlantis

An illustration by Sir Gerald Hargreaves shows a utopian scene on a cove of the mythical land of Atlantis An illustration by Sir Gerald Hargreaves shows a utopian scene on a cove of the mythical land of Atlantis. Many scholars think Plato invented the story of Atlantis as a way to present his philosophical theories.
  ©: Photograph by Mary Evans Picture Library/Everett Collection
tags: #Atlantis Sir Gerald #Hargreaves

ref. # 236b  2015 travel journal -Atlantis

A 20.000 year old underwater pyramid discovered in Mid-Atlantic in Portugal. A fabricated picture on a fabricated 'breaking news' story: 'Video: A 20.000 year old underwater pyramid discovered in Mid-Atlantic in Portugal.
  ©: anonhq.com
tags: #Atlantis

237  2015 travel journal Horta

The factory in Horta on Faial, closed in 1973 and during its 30 years of operation it processed 1940 sperm whales, producing 44,000 drums of oil.
text from "Whaling Heritage Faial"
  ©: photo: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Horta #Faial #whales

237a  2015 travel journal -'the Whales in Azores'

'The Whales in the Azores' from Hunt to Tourism, by Albano Cymbron, Márcia Dutra Pinto

Link: https://paranoiasnfm.wordpress.com
news.nationalgeographic.com

  ©: Albano Cybron & Marcia Dutra Pinto
tags: #Marcia Dutra Pinto #whales #azores #Albano Cymbron

ref. # 237b  2015 travel journal ´Clippers´

PANAM Clipper PANAM ´Clipper´ seaplanes used the harbour of Horta (Faial) for their transatlantic flights.
  ©: first day cover postage
tags:  #Horta #Faial #Azores #Clipper seaplane #PANAM

237c  2015 travel journal -Scrimshaw

"An art born of loneliness onboard 19th century whaling ships: engraving on whale teeth taken by Azorean hand-held harpoons. In Horta (Faial - Azores) Dutch artist John van Opstal still creates his engravings on whale teeth."
  ©: photo: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Scrimshaw #Horta #John van Opstal #Faial #Azores #whala

ref. # 237d  2015 travel journal -´Nantucket Sleighride´

"The Nantucket whaling ship, Essex ... was attacked by an 85 foot bull sperm whale, November 20, 1820. Two of the three whaleboats were off on Nantucket sleighrides (being pulled by harpooned whales.) A damaged third boat was aboard being repaired by First-Mate Owen Chase. Crewman made Chase aware of the enormous whale circling the ship. The bull rammed the ship along the starboard bow and smacked the length of the vessel with its powerful tail. Chase hesitated with his harpoon in fear of losing the rudder. The whale circled to the bow again and accelerated like Chase had never seen:"
  ©: text and photo: practicallyhistorical.net
tags: #whale #nantucket sleighride

237e  2015 travel journal -sy-GEMINI

sy-GEMINI, Horta - Azores, 2015 Passing sailing yachts are invited to leave a momento on the quais of the harbour of Horta. And so we did.
  ©: Robert Schilder 2015 sy-gemini.nl
tags: 

237f  2015 travel journal Peter´s Café Sport

Whaling Museum and preferred hang-out of yachties.
www.petercafesport.com/

  ©: photo RS www.sy-gemini.nl

tags: #Peters Cafe #Horta #sy-Gemini

ref. # 237g  2015 travel journal -whaling on Pico Island

  ©: www.espacotalassa.com
tags: #whaling #Pico

ref. # 237h  2015 travel journal -whaling on Pico Island

Whaling on Pico Island   contact: Whaling on Pico Island
tags: #whaling #pico #azores #lajes

ref. # 237i  2015 travel journal -Trans Atlantic Cable Company

  ©:
tags: #Trans Atlantic Cable Company #Horta #Faial #Azores

ref. # 237j  2015 travel journal -Trans Atlantic Cable Company

Trans Atlantic Cable Company, Horta, Faial, Azores The transatlantic cable, completed in July 1866, was the beginning of fast communication across the seas.
New York merchant and financier Cyrus W. Field first proposed laying a 2,000-mile copper cable along the ocean bottom from Newfoundland to Ireland in 1854, but the first three attempts ended in broken cables and failure. Field's persistence finally paid off in July 1866, when the Great Eastern, the largest ship then afloat, successfully laid the cable along the level, sandy bottom of the North Atlantic.
As messages traveled between Europe and America in hours rather than weeks, Cyrus Field was showered with honors. Among the honors was this commemorative print referring to the cable as the Eighth Wonder of the World.
Image credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, reproduction number LC-USZC4-2388. Further information on this and many other Atlantic Cable lithographs and broadsides may be found here.
  ©:atlantic-cable.com
tags: #Trans Atlantic Cable Company #Horta #Faial #Azores

237k  2015 travel journal -Horta

the old building of the 'Observatorio Principe Alberto de Monaca' in Horta (not the actualmeteorological observatory which is located at the Monte das Moças)
"The Observatório Príncipe Alberto do Mónaco northeast of the old harbour was founded in 1915 originally as a weather station, but today it serves as volcanic surveying and early-warning centre. It was named after the geologist and oceanographer Prince Albert of Monaco, the first of this name, who visited the Azores towards the end of the 19th century."
SOURCES:
- www.inventario.iacultura.pt
- www.azores-islands.info
- wikipedia
  ©: photo: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Observatorio #Horta

238  2015 travel journal -Pico Island

Pico Island   ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Pico #Azores

for ref. to the musea on Faial & Pico Island see #069

239  2015 travel journal -from Horta to Falmouth

On the way from Horta (Azores) to Falmouth (UK) we had some bad weather and the GEMINI is gettin' beaten

  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #sy-Gemini #sailing

239a  2015 travel journal -from Horta to Falmouth

  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #sy-Gemini #sailing

239b  2015 travel journal -from Pico Island

from Pico Island from Pico Island

  ©: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Horta, #Pico Island, #Falmouth

239c  2015 travel journal -from Horta to Falmouth

"Atlantic Ocean, the world's second largest body of water. Its area, including all connecting seas and gulfs, is about 33,420,000 square miles (86,557,000 km2), almost 24 per cent of the world's oceanic area."
with a map of the Atlantic Ocean
  ©: Robert Schilder 2915
tags: #Atlantic Ocean

240  2015 travel journal -Falmouth Harbour

Falmouth Harbour

  ©: photograph: Robert Schilder 2015
tags: #Atlantic Ocean

ref. # 242  2015 travel journal -about pollution

the Ocean Cleanup - Boyan Slat Boyan Slat (1994) combines technology and entrepreneurism to tackle global issues of sustainability. He currently serves as the founder and CEO of The Ocean Cleanup.
After diving in Greece aged 16, frustrated by coming across more plastic bags than fish, he wondered; why can't we clean this up? While still being on secondary school, he then decided to dedicate half a year of research to understand the plastic pollution and the challenges associated with cleaning it up. This ultimately led to the passive cleanup concept, which he presented in 2012.
Working to prove the feasibility of his concept, Boyan Slat has given lead to a team of over 100 people, and Boyan Slat then quit his Aerospace Engineering study to completely focus his efforts on proving the feasibility of The Ocean Cleanup. In June 2014, having worked with an international team of 100 scientists and engineers for a year, the concept turned out to be 'likely technically feasible and financially viable'. A subsequent crowd funding campaign then raised close to $2.2m, now enabling the organization to start the pilot phase.
In 2012, The Ocean Cleanup has been awarded Best Technical Design at the Delft University of Technology. Boyan Slat has been recognized as one of the 20 Most Promising Young Entrepreneurs Worldwide (Intel EYE50), and is a laureate of the 2014 United Nations Champions for the Earth award.
Visit TheOceanCleanup.com
©: 2014 www.boyanslat.com
tags: #Boyan Slat #the Ocean Cleanup

Much more on pollution and how we can all help #041

242a  2015 travel journal -50 Ways to save the Ocean

Our Oceans remain a largely uncharted and unexplored frontier wilderness, filled with unique habitats and innumerable ´alien´ species that scientists are only now beginning to identify. Our Oceans drive both climate and weather and are the source of over half the oxygen on earth, an essential ingredient for all life forms. It provides us with recreation, transportation, protein, energy, security, medicine and a sense of awe and wonder.
"50 ways to save the Ocean" is a book originally designed as a teachers aid to help educate children´s awareness, but I think is a great resource for anyone interested in understanding and expanding one´s engagement with our Oceans.
©: David Helvarg author and founder of the Blue Frontier Campain  www.bluefront.org   info@bluefront.org
tags: #50 Ways to save the Ocean

242b  2015 travel journal -the Water Footprint Assessment Manual

the Water Footprint Assessment Manual Provides a comprehensive set of methods for water footprint assessment.
Shows how water footprints can be calculated for individual processes and products, as well as for consumers, nations and businesses.
Contains detailed worked examples of how to calculate green, blue and grey water footprints Describes how to assess the sustainability of the aggregated water footprint within a river basin or the water footprint of a specific product.
Includes an extensive library of possible measures that can contribute to water footprint reduction.
Additional guidelines for implementing the standard are being developed, for example Grey Water Footprint Assessment: Tier 1 Guidelines were published in 2013. The standard is being implemented in the Water Footprint Assessment Tool and the water footprint statistics available online from WaterStat have been developed using the standard.
  ©: waterfootprint.org
tags: #waterfootprint

243  2015 travel journal -Dartmouth

Dartmouth 50.21.5, -3.34.41 Dartmouth, looking at Kingswear
  ©: Robert Schilder 2016
tags: #Dartmouth, #Kingswear, #Cornwall

243a  2015 travel journal -Dartmouth Castle Cove, England

Canterbury 50.20.29, -3.33.58 (near) Dartmouth Castle
  ©: Robert Schilder 2016
tags: #Dartmouth Castle Cove, #England

243b  2015 travel journal -Dartmouth Castle, England

Canterbury 50.20.29, -3.33.58 Dartmouth Castle
  ©: Robert Schilder 2016
tags: #Dartmouth Castle Cove, #England

# 243c  2015 travel journal -'Save the Meat, buy Fresh Fish', England

Save the Meat, WWI poster'Buy Fresh Fish, Save the meat for our Soldiers and Allies', WWI poster
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, urges consumers to purchase and eat fish rather than meat. The poster shows a butcher pointing at fish while a female customer looks on. The butcher and the woman are both smiling, and the words "A Good Butcher" appear in the background. Canada was a major producer and exporter of meat, grains, and other foodstuffs, and the country ramped up production during the war to help meet the needs of Britain, France, and other allies, where the war caused agricultural production to decline. Meat is less perishable than fish, and by eating fish consumers could increase the amount of meat available for export.
  ©: This poster is by E. Henderson, a Canadian artist who produced a series of posters urging Canadian farmers to expand their production and consumers to conserve food. www.wdl.org
tags: #Save the Meat, #England

ref. # 243d   Unknown territories -Frances Drake

Second around the world: Drake 1577-1580
60 years later a British explorer Frances Drake led the second expedition to sail around the world. They had a good experience around the Cape and named it the 'Fairest Cape in all the globe'. The Golden Hind was the largest of 5 ships in his fleet.
text courtesy Coastcare South Africa 'Our coast for our live', and the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
read this also: 10 Things You May Not Know About Francis Drake
  ©:
tags: Frances Drake

243f  2015 travel journal -'Hales Memorial', Canterbury

The Hales Memorial
The inscription refers to James HALES, Treasurer to the Portuguese Expedition of 1589, who died of fever and was buried at sea, to his widow, DAME ALICE, who died in 1592, to Cheney HALES, their son, who died in 1596, and to Richard LEE, Alice's widower, who erected the monument.
The background painting depicts the River Stour, St. Mildred's Church Canterbury, and the family manor house, set in the Kentish countryside.
  ©: Robert Schilder 2016
tags: #Canterbury, #Cathedral, #England

243g  2015 travel journal -England

Fragments of stained-glass collected 'at Antwerp, Amsterdam and other places in the Low Countrys' by Edward Spencer CURLING (1772-1850) of Deal. He was a partner in a shipping agency that acted as consuls 'for Hamburg, Hanover, the Netherlands, Portugal and Russia' under King George IV. The stained glass had been removed from churches and chapels through change of use from the late-18th century, and sold through auction and dealers. Curling presented two frames of stained glass to Canterbury Philosophical and Literary Institution Museum in 1829, which were installed at Guildhall Street before moving with collections to the Beaney House of Art & Knowledge in 1899.
51.16.47, -01.04.43 Beaney, Canterbury
  ©: Robert Schilder 2016
tags: #Beaney, #Canterbury, #England

247  2015 travel journal -Whale Stranding of 1617

whale stranding at Scheveningen Title: Whale Stranding of 1617: The Whale Beached Between Scheveningen and Katwijk on 20 or 21 January 1617, with Elegant Sightseers.
Artist/Maker: Esaias van de Velde, Date: 1617 Material: oil on canvas
  ©: New Bedford Whaling Museum  www.flickr.com
tags: #New Bedford whaling Museum

247a  2015 travel journal -Stranded Whale

about: "Gestrande walvis bij Berckhey, 1598, anoniem, Jacob Matham, Hendrick Goltzius, 1600 - 1649"

"A large whale, thrown up out of the blue sea (gods, let it not be a bad omen!), washed up on the beach near Katwijk. What a terror of the deep Ocean is a whale, when it is driven by the wind and its own power on to the shore of the land and lies captive on the dry sand. We commit this creature to paper and we make it famous, so that the people can talk it about it."
So reads the Latin text accompanying a late sixteenth-century engraving of a beached whale on the Dutch coast. While it may seem a peculiar subject for artistic representation, prints, as well as drawings and paintings, of stranded whales proliferated in the Dutch Republic in the late sixteenth century and first half of the seventeenth century.
Between 1521 and the end of the seventeenth century, there were at least forty instances of whales becoming stranded on the coasts of the Netherlands, the likely explanation being the treacherous nature of the North Sea coastline for the enormous mammals, whose echo-sounding system was possibly disrupted by the muddy, sloping shore areas.
"While observers were careful to prod, probe, and measure the helpless creatures, beachings were not merely zoological and arithmetic exercises: they were viewed as significant historical events that did not merely cause concern for the animal´s struggle; many sought and saw deeper meaning, viewing them as "oracular signpost(s)" or portents of impending disaster."
link: www.victoriasearsgoldman.com

In the eye of the whale (movie) Kate Miller
  ©: (RP-P-OB-80.357.jpg) Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
tags: #Stranded Whale #Rijksmuseum

247b  2015 travel journal - Beached Whale at Beverwijk 19 dec. 1601

Beached Whale at Beverwijk 19 dec. 1601 Large version (beeldbank.noord-hollandsarchief.nl)
This 1602 engraving by Dutch artist Jan Saenredam records the actual beaching of a sperm whale at Beverwijk on 19 December 1601.
read the full article here: www.motherjones.com

very interesting ´whale´link here: www.studiocosmos.com
  ©: Wikimedia Commons
tags: #beached #sperm whale #noordhollands beeldarchief #Beverwijk

247c  2015 travel journal -beached whale

beached whale "Willem Buytewech produced an engraving in 1617 of a beached whale that was later painted by Esaias van de Velde"
  ©: via Victoria SearsGoldman
tags: #beached whale #Victoria Sears Goldman #

247d  2015 travel journal -beached whale

Jacon Matham after Hendrick Goltzius, The Beached Sperm Whale near Berkhey, 1598, 318 x 428 mm, Engraving, Atlas Van Stolk, Rotterdam
What to do if you find a live stranded whale or dolphin?

  ©:
tags: #Jacon Matham Hendrick Goltzius beached sperm whale

247e  2015 travel journal -beached whale

Hendrick Goltzius beached sperm whale Anonymous after Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617), Stranded whale at Zandvoort, 1594 Harvard Art Museum, Light Outerbridge Collection, Richard Norton Memorial Fund, M24552

"For the most part whales were still considered sea monsters on maps and in such descriptions. Their rare appearances were still usually interpreted as omens or portents, divine signs to be interpreted, usually as warnings. Of course, they were still regarded as fish rather than mammals until the later classification system of Linnaeus in the eighteenth century"
text & image: ´De Profundis´:Linear Leviathans in the Lowlands

  ©: www.codart.nl
tags: #stranded beached #sperm whale #Hendrick Goltzius

247f  2015 travel journal -beached whale

Whale stranded on the beach of Scheveningen, Jacob Matham, 1602
  ©:
tags: #whale #Jacob Matham #stranded whale #Scheveningen

247g  2015 travel journal -´Whale Stranded on the Dutch North Sea Coast´

Adam Willaerts beached sperm whale Creator: Adam Willaerts (Flemish, 1577-1664) Date: circa 1617 Medium: Oil on a wooden panel. Dimensions: 17-3/4 x 34 inches (45.1 x 86.4 cm)

"For reasons unknown, sperm whales beached themselves on the Dutch seacoast in unprecedented numbers in the late 16th and 17th centuries. While there are a number of engravings illustrating some of these whale strandings, only two contemporaneous paintings are known, this one and an analogous but quite different rendering by Esaias van de Velde (q.v.). Such whale strandings were often taken as signs or portents of theological significance, but the interpretation here is as a secular cause celebre, paying special attention to watercraft alongshore as well as to the great whale itself and a refreshments stand, around which is a festival-like gathering of common folks, gentry, and aristocracy."
  ©: text: Stuart M. Frank, Ph.D., Senior Curator Emeritus, New Bedford whaling Museum www.whalingmuseum.org
tags: #Adam Willaerts #beached sperm whale

ref. # 247h  2015 travel journal -Stranded whale in Kokszijde Belgium

Stranded whale in Kokszijde Belgium
Dog looking at beached sperm whale
  ©: Martijn de Jonge 1995
tags: #Martijn de Jonge, sperm whale, #Kokszijde, #Belgium, #beached

247i  2015 travel journal -Stranded whale Katwijk / Scheveningen

Stranded whale in Katwijk - Scheveningen
caption reads: "Warfafftigh Und Wünderbarlich Monster oder Pottfisch in der gestalt eines Wallfishes aÜs dem Möer sich Versandet (Verfandet?) hatt zWischen Catwijck Und ScheÜelingen als Wijter in der Relation ercleret am 4 Febrüarij Anno 1598" (magnificient monster in the form of a whale ...) 1598-02-04
  ©: PD  fornleifur.blog.is
tags: #sperm whale, #Katwijk, #Scheveningen#Belgium, #beached

248  2015 travel journal -Pump or Drown

Pump or Drown -the Dutch and their relation to WATER "´Pompen of Verzuipen´ (pump or drown) -the dutch and their relation to WATER- is about the Netherlands from the province of Flevoland to Zeeland, from the past and present into the future. it is the root of the complete history of watermanagement from prehistory to the present."
exhibition poster
link: www.nieuwlanderfgoed.nl

  ©:
tags: #pompen of verzuipen #Holland

248a  2015 travel journal -Holland

Holland, postcard, photochromie postcard, photochromie (early 20th century)   ©: unknown
tags:  ;#Holland

248b  2015 travel journal -Map of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands

Map of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Drawn by Joannes (or Johannes) JANSSONIUS, part of his collection ´Belgii Foederati Nova Descriptio´
Published in Amsterdam (1658)
  ©: Public Domain Wikipedia
tags: #Seven United Netherlands #map #Holland

ref. # 249f -Sailing Wheelbarrow

sailing wheelbarrow Diagram of a sailing wheelbarrow from Braam Houckgeest (+1797) showing the batten sail and multiple sheets so characteristic of Chinese nautical practice

The Chinese had "wind-driven carriages" since the 6th century AD, during the Liang Dynasty, and eventually mounted masts and sails on large wheelbarrows.The earliest text describing the Chinese use of mounting masts and sails on large vehicles is the Book of the Golden Hall Master written by the Daoist scholar and crown prince Xiao Yi, who later became Emperor Yuan of Liang (r. 552-554 AD). He wrote that Gaocang Wushu invented a "wind-driven "which was able to carry thirty people at once.There was another built in about 610 for the Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604-617), as described in the Continuation of the New Discourses on the Talk of the Times.
  ©: (with much more details) Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology
tags: sailing #sailing wheelbarrow

249g  Land Sailing - land yacht of Simon Stevin

Zeilwagen Simon Stevin Famous land yacht of Simon Stevin, 1602, Willem Isaacsz. van Swanenburg, Christoffel van Sichem (printer), Henricus Hondius (publisher), 1603 gravure on paper 70x149 cm., dedicated to Maurits, prince of Orange
www.rijksmuseum.nl

  ©: Publiek Domein hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.487111
tags: #Rijksmuseum #RP-P-OB-84.454 #Simon Stevin #Prince Maurice #Prins Maurits #Prins van Oranje #land yacht

249h  Land Sailing -Land yacht

land yacht For more on wind energy and sailing, please also see number 076

Land sailing, also known as sand yachting or land yachting, is the act of moving across land in a wheeled vehicle powered by wind through the use of a sail. The term comes from analogy with (water) sailing. Historically, land sailing was used as a mode of transportation or recreation. Since the 1950s it has evolved primarily into a racing sport.

  ©:
tags: #Land yacht #zeilwagen

249i  Land Sailing -detail

land sailing detail Lit.: E. A. van Beresteyn: Iconographie van Hugo Grotius, Den Haag, 1929, prenten nr. 96. Hugo de Groot zit achter bij het roer.

Prince Maurits' sailing carriages had been designed by Simon STEVIN. The Prince, always accessible to new inventions of his old instructor, could not please the foreign ambassadors more than by inviting them for a ride in his carriage.
The big sailing-carriage could seat 28 persons and could reach a speed of seven miles per hour.

  ©: www.geheugenvannederland.nl

full plate:www.rijksmuseum.nl   left and right part.
tags: #Hugo de Groot #land yacht #Simon Stevin #Rijksmuseum

249j  Land Sailing -'Flora´s Wagon of Fools'

'Flora´s Wagon of Fools' by Hendrik POT (c. 1637)
In 1593 tulips were brought from Turkey and introduced to the Dutch. The novelty of the new flower made it widely sought after and therefore fairly pricey. After a time, the tulips contracted a non-fatal virus known as mosaic, which didn't kill the tulip population but altered them causing "flames" of color to appear upon the petals. The color patterns came in a wide variety, increasing the rarity of an already unique flower. Thus, tulips, which were already selling at a premium, began to rise in price according to how their virus alterations were valued, or desired. Everyone began to deal in bulbs, essentially speculating on the tulip market, which was believed to have no limits.
Read more: Market Crashes: The Tulip and Bulb Craze | Investopedia, en.wikipedia.org
  ©: Wikimedia commons

Hendrik Gerritsz. Pot (circa 1580-1657). Title: Flora's mallewagen.
Description: Allegory of the Tulip Mania. The goddess of flowers is riding along with three drinking and money weighing men and two women on a car. Weavers from Haarlem have thrown away their equipment and are following the car. The destiny of the car is shown in the background: it will disappear in the sea. Date: circa 1640. Medium: oil on panel. Dimensions: 61x83 cm (24x32.7 in). Current location: Frans Hals Museum, Haarlem, Netherlands. Source/Photographer: van Diepen en Fuhri Snethlage (1990) Haarlem en Hals: een stad en zijn schilder. Zwolle: Waanders; Haarlem: Frans Hals museum ISBN 90-6630-212-7

research also: carrus navalis
see also: Pinterest  board Landsailing
tags: #Hendrik Pot #Flora's wagon of fools

249k  Land Sailing -Land Yacht

land yacht
  ©: text & photo Wikipedia, Publiek Domain.;
tags: #Land Yacht #the Netherlands

249l  Land Sailing -Land Yacht

land yacht On the beach of Middelkerke (Zeeland - the Netherlands). Note the primitive design. Unusual is -for Holland- that it is not sloop rigged, but gaffel rigged. date dec. 31th, 1922
Uploaded by ´Smiley.toerist´ and taken by an unknown member of his family - collection of family De Fonseca/Gheysens
  ©: text & photo Wikipedia, Publiek Domain.;
tags: #Land Yacht #the Netherlands

249m  Land Sailing -Sail driven wagon

land yacht "The £2 stamp shows the early sail driven wagon, the wagons were rigged with a single lugsail but with a lever geared to the back axle to permit hand-powered movement against the wind."
www.philatelicdatabase.com

  ©: requested to share ;
tags: #Land Yacht #sail driven wagon #falkland islands

249n  Land Sailing -Wind Wagon Project

Wind Wagon Project Wind Wagon Project
Sailing in the wake of Wind Wagon Tomas - Swedes sail the Nevada salts flats!
Between 1846 and 1869 over 500,000 emigrants used what today are called the Emigrant Trails to cross the vast plains of America. Most were searching for a better life, and some were just searching for gold. It is estimated that one tenth of these early emigrants died of disease, dehydration and starvation along the harsh six month long journey. It was a slow pace with horse or oxen driven wagons making about twenty to thirty kilometers per day.
There was one innovative man who looked out across the rolling hills of the plains, and decided that there should be an alternative to the horse drawn wagon. He had a vision to use the wind to cross the plains in a wagon with sails, and soon became known as Wind Wagon Thomas. After proving he could sail a small wind wagon, in record time, to a town located 300 miles away, he established the Prairie Clipper Company, which would offer passengers a sailing journey across the plains on a magnificent "Prairie Clipper Company"
read on! www.windwagonproject.se
  ©: requested to share ;
tags: #Land Yacht #Wind wagon Project

250  2016 travel journal Venice -'Battle of Lepanto'

battle of lepanto Andrea VICENTINO (1542-1617)
'Battle of Lepanto' 1603. Oil on canvas. Current location: Doge's Palace (Palazzo Ducale), Venice
The Battle of Lepanto, the famous naval battle against the Turks, took place in 1571 and concluded with the victory of the Venetians and its allies over the enemies of Christianity, who seemed by now invincible in the eyes of all the European nations. The painting represents the realistic and symbolic victory after many years of bitterness, sacrifice and humiliation especially for Venice, which under Turkish pressure had to give up many lands, ports and commercial affairs over the years with the evident consequence of the rapid and continuous loss of power and wealth.
At the centre of the painting, and as its protagonists, are the two adversary admirals: the Venetian Sebastiano Venier and the Turk Ali Pasha.
  ©: PD (Wikipedia)
tags: #Venice #Lepanto #battle

250a  2016 travel journal Venice -'Battle of Lepanto' 2

'Battle of Lepanto by Juan LUNA (1887)
oil on canvas, 550 x 350 cm (216.5 x 137.8 in)
The Battle of Lepanto (Spanish: La Batalla de Lepanto) is a famous painting by Filipino painter and hero Juan Luna. Painted in 1887, the masterpiece is about the Battle of Lepanto of October 7, 1571. The painting features Don Juan of Austria (also known as Don John of Austria) in battle while at the bow of a ship.

"The Empire's sultan died that year and was suceeded by a younger, more motivated one, Selim II. Of course, in Spain this was specially troubling. It particularly worried King Philip, who began to tighten his grip on his Muslim's territories (namely, the never-quite-conquered Granada) and this turned into a rebellion in which Ottoman troops were involved. Even though he eventually crushed the rebels, King Philip didn't feel victorious. The way was paved for the famous Battle of Lepanto"
  ©:text: www.spanishwars.com

Location of painting: Palacio del Senado, Madrid. More on the battle: www.traditioninaction.org

  ©: PD Wikipedia
tags: #Lepanto #Madrid #Juan Luna

250b  2016 travel journal Venice -'Battle of Lepanto' 3

Anonymous 'Battle of Lepanto, (October 7, 1571)'.
  © National Maritime Museum
see also: Battle of Lepanto on Spanish Wikipedia
tags: #Lepanto #Venice
TIMELINE

250c  2016 travel journal Venice -PALMA the Younger, 'Crusading army attacks Constantinople'

Palma the Younger, Crusading army attacks Constantinople Jacopo PALMA il Giovane: (PALMA the Younger), 'Crusading army attacks Constantinople - 1204' (painting 1587)
painting in Doge's Palace. See also 'from Konstanz to Jeruzalem' 252i
  ©: Google Arts & Culture, Public Domain Wikipedia
tags: #Palma the younger #Constantinople #Crusade #Palazzo Ducale

250d  2016 travel journal Venice -'Battle of Salvore'

Tintoretto - Battle of Salvore Domenico TINTORETTO (1560-1635) 'Battle of Salvore' (1605)
painting in Doge's Palace.
The Battle of Salvore took place in the waters near Savudrija between the Venetian fleet led by Doge Sebastian Ziani and Nicola Contarini and the fleet of Holy Roman Empire led by emperor's son Otto I, Count of Burgundy. Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa was also present in the battle.
In the wars between the emperor and the Union of Lombard cities, supported by Pope Alexander III, Barbarossa, being provoked by the agreement between Republic of Venice and the pope, and the pope's protection of the Union cities, raised a fleet of 75 galleys from Republic of Genoa and Republic of Pisa.
Having heard that the emperor's fleet was in the Adriatic Sea, the doge went to meet them with 30 galleys. Sheltered in the Bay of Piran, the doge unexpectedly attacked them, took them by surprise and was victorious after six hours of battle.
In the middle of the battle the emperor's ship fled and the emperor hid in a Roman cistern on shore. This gave rise to the name "Salvore", in Latin meaning "Saved king"
Wikipedia
  ©: Public Domain Wikipedia
see also:
tags: #Salvore #Venice

251  2016 travel journal Catania -Catania: 'the Sicilian Expedition'

the Sicilian Expedition trireme landing image: a 'trireme' landing in the Pelopponesian War
The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place during the period from 415 BC to 413 BC (during the Peloponnesian War). The expedition was hampered from the outset by uncertainty in its purpose and command structure -political maneuvering in Athens swelled a lightweight force of twenty ships into a massive armada, and the expedition's primary proponent, Alcibiades, was recalled from command to stand trial before the ?eet even reached Sicily -but still achieved early successes. Syracuse, the most powerful state on Sicily, responded exceptionally slowly to the Athenian threat and, as a result, was almost completely invested before the arrival of a Spartan general, Gylippus, galvanized its inhabitants into action. From that point forward, however, as the Athenians ceded the initiative to their newly energized opponents, the tide of the con?ict shifted. A massive reinforcing armada from Athens brie?y gave the Athenians the upper hand once more, but a disastrous failed assault on a strategic high point and several crippling naval defeats damaged the besiegers' ?ghting capacity and morale, and the Athenians were eventually forced to attempt a desperate overland escape from the city they had hoped to conquer. That last measure, too, failed, and nearly the entire expedition surrendered or was destroyed in the Sicilian interior.
  ©: text: Wikipedia
tags: #Catania #Sicily #trireme

252  Ocean Art -gravure: Pieter Breughel, poem: John Masefield

Een oorlogsschip begeleid door een galei, Frans Huys, Pieter Brueghel (I), 1561 - 1565 Armed Three-Master on the Open Sea, accompanied by a Galley; large ship with guns at full sail in centre, seen from left; a large imperial pennant flaps from its mast; smaller galley to the left; second state with address of Hieronymus Cock; after Pieter Bruegel the Elder. c.1565 Engraving
Armed Three-Master on the Open Sea, accompanied by a Galley; large ship with guns at full sail in centre, seen from left; a large imperial pennant flaps from its mast; smaller galley to the left; second state with address of Hieronymus Cock; after Pieter Bruegel the Elder. c.1565 Engraving A warship accompanied by a galley, print made by Frans Huys, after Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1561 - 1565

"I must go down to the seas again, to the lonely sea and the sky,
And all I ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by;
And the wheel's kick and the wind's song and the white sail's shaking,
And a grey mist on the sea's face, and a grey dawn breaking,
I must go down to the seas again, for the call of the running tide
Is a wild call and a clear call that may not be denied;
And all I ask is a windy day with the white clouds flying,
And the flung spray and the blown spume, and the sea-gulls crying.
I must go down to the seas again, to the vagrant gypsy life,
To the gull's way and the whale's way where the wind's like a whetted knife;
And all I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing fellow-rover,
And quiet sleep and a sweet dream when the long trick's over."

  © poem:-John Masefield from 'Sea-Fever', in Salt-Water Ballads (1902)
tags: #John Masefield #poem

  © engraving: the British Museum, Rijksmuseum CC0 1.0 Universeel (CC0 1.0) Publiek Domein Verklaring

tags: #Pieter Breughel #British Museum

252a  Ocean Art - 'Three Caravels' by Pieter Breugel the Elder

Three Caravels by Pieter Breugel the Elder 'Three Caravels in a Rising Squall with Arion on a Dolphin' from 'The Sailing Vessels'
Artist: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Netherlandish, Breda (?) ca. 1525-1569 Brussels)
Artist: Frans Huys (Netherlandish, 1522-1562)
Publisher: Hieronymus Cock (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1510-1570 Antwerp)
Date: 1561-65, Engraving and etching; first state of six, Dim.: 8 11/16 x 11 1/4 in. (22 x 28.6 cm)
  © Metropolitan Museum of Art OASC
tags: #Pieter Breughel #MET #caravel

  *there is a facsimile of the full set of engravings published by www.fernandpouillon.com

Discoverers of the Atlantic Ocean

Rodrigo de Bastidas
Adriaen Block
Brandaan van Clonfert
John Cabot
Sebastian Cabot
Pedro Álvares Cabral
Diogo Cão
Jacques Cartier
Hendrick Christiaensen
Christoffel Columbus
John Davis
Bartolomeu Dias
Juan Díaz de Solís
Francis Drake
Erik de Rode
Leif Eriksson
Vasco da Gama
Binot Paulmier de Gonneville
Hendrik de Zeevaarder
Bjarni Herjolfsson
Henry Hudson
Ferdinand Magellaan
Jan Cornelisz. May
Olivier van Noort
Fernão do PO
Timothy Severin
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Amerigo Vespucci
tags: #discovery, Atlantic Ocean

252b  Ocean Art -Cephalopoda

Cephalopoda 'Cephalopoda' S. Stillman, (1912). 'The Cephalopoda of the Hawaiian Islands'. Artist: J.H. Emerton "Eledone Verrugosa". Cephalopods, animals commonly known as squid, cuttlefish, octopus, and nautilus. The giant squid is the largest of all mollusks. Most cephalopods are highly adapted for swimming. The body mass is very tall. There is no foot; the lower part of the body wall is drawn out to form a ring of arms, or tentacles, around the head. Only the nautilus has a complete external shell. They are an important food staple for many animals and for humans.

The Book: Stillman, S. (1912). The Cephalopoda of the Hawaiian Islands. From Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 32, 1912.
The Artist: J.H. Emerton "Eledone Verrugosa".

Class Cephalopoda
This class contains the cephalopods, animals commonly known as squid, cuttlefish, octopus, and nautilus. The giant squid is the largest of all mollusks. Most cephalopods are highly adapted for swimming. The body mass is very tall. There is no foot; the lower part of the body wall is drawn out to form a ring of arms, or tentacles, around the head. Among living cephalopods, only the nautilus (subclass Nautiloidea) has a complete external shell; extinct members of the subclass and the extinct ammonites (subclass Ammonoidea) had similar spiral shells. Members of the subclass Coleoidea (the squid, cuttlefish, and octopus), have an internal shell or no shell at all.
All cephalopods are carnivorous and possess a radula and powerful beaks. The nervous system and the sense of vision are highly developed. In most cephalopods the sexes are separate and reproduction requires copulation. Fertilization may occur inside or outside the mantle cavity. Cephalopods are worldwide in distribution and are found in all depths of the ocean. They are an important food staple for many animals, including humans.

  © unknown
tags:  #Cephalopoda #squid

252c  Ocean Art -Battle of Sluis

Battle of Sluis Federico Spinola's unsuccessful attempt to ram the blockade of Dutch ships at Sluis, 26 May 1603
Attributed to Aert Anthonisz. called van Antum (Antwerp 1580-1620 Amsterdam) oil on canvas, 138,2 x 244,7cm, ex collection Rob Kattenburg, purchased by the National Maritime Museum, Amsterdam
  ©: Public Domain, info: www.robkattenburrg.nl
tags: #Battle of Sluis #Maritime Museum Amsterdam #Rob van Kattenburg
TIMELINE

ref. # 252d  Ocean Art -'Jonah cast into the Sea'

Jonah Hieronymus Wierix Hieronymus WIERIX after Marten de Vos, Jonah cast into the sea, engraving (1585)
© The Trustees of the British Museum
tags: #Jonah #Wierix

252e  Ocean Art -'Ship with armed soldiers'

'Ship with armed soldiers' (Whole folio) Drawing of a war ship, with soldiers armed with bows and arrows, shields and spears. Date: 15th century. Current location:
Image taken from 'De re militari'. Originally published/produced in Italy; 15th century. Held and digitised by the British Library, reference 020255. imagesonline.bl.uk
  ©: British Library wikidata:Q23308. Accession number: Add. 24945, f.231v
tags: #British Library

252f  Ocean Art -'Guam and native boats'

Guam and native boats, Antonio PIGAFETTA 1491-1534 Author: Antonio PIGAFETTA (1491-1534) Date: vers 1525, Unknown origin
Description: Guam is an island in the western Pacific Ocean and is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States. Guam is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands (#040c).
Technique: Illuminated manuscript on vellum, 225 x 150 mm Source: Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Yale, New Haven / Nebeuzahl, Kenneth. Atlas de Christophe Colomb et des grandes découvertes. Paris: Bordas, 1991
  ©: image via Flickr: Image in Science and Art Project - Image and caption provided by: Marina López , CFCUL and Diogo Lourenço, FCUL/CFCUL
tags:  #guam, #mariana, #

252g  Ocean Art -Ferdinandes Magalanes Lusitanus, plate 4 from "Americae Retectio"

Ferdinandes Magalanes Lusitanus, plate 4 from Jan van der STRAET, called Stradanus (1523 - 1605) Title 'Ferdinandes Magalanes Lusitanus', plate 4 from 'Americae Retectio' Object type Print. Date: 1580s. Medium: Engraving on off white laid paper. Current location: Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum wikidata:Q1129820 Accession number: 1949-37-2 The galleon, from a etching by Flemish artist Jan van der Straet, would normally sail with its gun ports closed.
  ©: Google Art Project / Wikimedia
tags:  #Ferdinand Magalan #Jan van der Straet

252h  Ocean Art -'Pretmakers in een mossel op zee'

'Merrymakers in a Mussel at Sea' (or 'The Oystershell', or 'Musiciens in a Mussel shell' -Noordbrabants Museum -much larger?) by Pieter van der HEYDEN, engraving after Hieronymus Bosch (?) and published by Hieronymus Cock (1562) height: 10.8 cm (4.3 in). width: 9.8 cm (3.9 in)
(reversed) Version by Johann Theodor de Bry (1596) (Rijksmuseum.nl),
"In de opengeklapte mosselschelp bevinden zich zestien figuren die muziek maken. Enkele vormen van liederlijk gedrag worden getoond: een priester omhelst een vrouw en een man braakt in het water. Een man maakt muziek op een haardijzer (treeft). In de boom zit een uil (symbool voor zotheid)" text: Noordbrabants Museum
'Bosch's engraving 'Merrymakers Sailing in a Mussel Shell'depicts a motley group surrounding a table in a floating half-opened oyster shell Similar in its composition and subject matter to 'the Blue Ship', 'Merrymakers'expresses a bitter sarcastic view of coeval notions of love"Google books 'the Theme of Music in Northern Renaissance Banquet Scenes'
  ©: current location: Prentenkabinet of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, this file from Wikimedia commons, see also #126
tags: #merrymakers #musselshell #oystershell #pieter van der heyden #Hieronymus Bosch ##126; #postcard; #mm

ref. # 252i  Ocean Art -from Konstanz to Jeruzalem 1

Konrad von Gruenenberg - from Konstanz to Jeruzalem Konrad von GRÜNENBERG: 'Description of a journey from Konstanz to Jerusalem' records in diary form the pilgrimage undertaken by the German knight (as well as town mayor and architect)."
text: bibliodessey.blogspot.nl

See also: PALMA the Younger, 'Crusading army attacks Constantinople'  252c
  ©: Badische Landesbibliotek Fotos: Beate Ehlig, Badische Landesbibliothek
tags: #Badische Landesbibliotek #Konrad von Gruenenberg

252j  Ocean Art -from Konstanz to Jeruzalem 2

Konrad von Gruenenberg - from Konstanz to Jeruzalem "Konrad von GRÜNENBERG: 'Beschreibung der Reise von Konstanz nach Jerusalem'. - Papier; Bodenseegebiet (Konstanz?); um 1487. Badische Landesbibliothek, Cod. St. Peter pap. 32. Blatt 50r
"Im Jahre 1487 fertiggestellt, schildert die Reisebeschreibung tagebuchartig eine typische Pilgergesellschaftsreise nach Jerusalem, an der Konrad von Grünenberg von April bis November 1486 teilnahm.
Kulturhistorisch bedeutsam sind die vielen Handzeichnungen mit einer Fülle von topographischen Details, die den ausgezeichneten Beobachter verraten. Grünenberg entstammt einer Konstanzer Patrizierfamilie"
  ©: Badische Landesbibliotek Fotos: Beate Ehlig, Badische Landesbibliothek
tags:  #Badische Landesbibliotek #Konrad von Gruenenberg

252k  Ocean Art -  -'Lilies bloom in Waves'

Lilies bloom in waves. Allegorical engraving representing the kingdom of France in the form of a ship with Louis XIII and Richelieu in control. Lilies bloom in waves. Allegorical engraving representing the kingdom of France in the form of a ship with Louis XIII and Richelieu in control. (1630-1640)
Source Gallica.fr. Artiste inconnu.
  ©: PD Wikipedia
tags: #postcard #france

252l  Ocean Art -  -'Full page drawing of tall ship'

Full page drawing of tall ship Gregorio DATI (1362-1436) Renaissance and medieval manuscripts collection.
Italy 1401 - 1500 (approx. 15th century) Place: Italy
  ©: PD from The New York Public Library
tags: #postcard #Italy

252m  Ocean Art -  -Naga shell amulet

Naga shell amulet   ©: this is really a very interesting website with many beautiful artifacts: chuansong.me
tags: #naga, #shell, #amulet

252n  Ocean Art -  -Jason and the Argonauts

Naga shell amulet Medea, Absirchius and Hypsipyle
Medea with Jason and the Argonauts in a ship, about to throw the head of her brother into the sea with his severed limbs, to stop her father, King Oethes, who is pursuing them in the other ship; above left, Jason's abandoned lover Hypsipyle is about to jump off a cliff; from 'Historie van Jason', Netherlands, N. (Gouda or Haarlem?), between 1475 and 1480, Add MS 10290, f. 118
Author: Raoul Lefèvre. Title: 'Historie van Jason' (translation of l'Histoire de Jason'), with a prologue addressed to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Origin: N. Netherlands (Gouda?). Date: Between 1475 and 1480. Language: Dutch.Script: Gothic cursive. Artists: Master of the London Jason. Dimensions in mm: 270 x 195 (190 x 130)
  ©: Public Domain, British Library, larger image
tags: #jason, #argonauts, #british library

252o  Ocean Art -  -le Phare de l'enfant perdu'

le Phare de l'enfant perdu "Il y a sur l'îlot un phare. À l'époque du bagne, des prisonniers y étaient laissés pour en alimenter le feu pendant la nuit. Un jour, l administration pénitentiaire les oublia. Le phare resta èteint et personne ne s'en aperçu. Affamés, les hommes construisirent un radeau de bois et rejoignirent le rivage. Arrivés à Cayenne, ils furent capturés... On les condamna pour évasion".
  ©: Wikipedia
tags: #phare, #lighthouse, #enfant perdu

252p  Ocean Art -  -'By the Sea - Nootka'

By the Sea - Nootka
photographer Edward S. CURTIS (American, 1868 - 1952) 'By the Sea - Nootka',
negative 1915; print 1916, Photogravure, 18.5x13.6 cm (7 5/16 x 5 3/8 in.)
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
  ©: PD search.getty.edu
tags: #pacific, #edward s.curtis, indian

252q  Ocean Art -  -Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci on Water Leonardo DA VINCI was absolutely fascinated by water. For him it was full of paradox:
"Water is sometimes sharp and sometimes strong, sometimes acid and sometimes bitter, sometimes sweet and sometimes thick or thin, sometimes it is seen bringing hurt or pestilence, sometime health-giving, sometimes poisonous. It suffers change into as many natures as are the different places through which it passes. And as the mirror changes with the colour of its subject, so it alters with the nature of the place, becoming noisome, laxative, astringent, sulfurous, salty, incarnadined, mournful, raging, angry, red, yellow, green, black, blue, greasy, fat or slim. Sometimes it starts a conflagration, sometimes it extinguishes one; is warm and is cold, carries away or sets down, hollows out or builds up, tears or establishes, fills or empties, raises itself or burrows down, speeds or is still; is the cause at times of life or death, or increase or privation, nourishes at times and at others does the contrary; at times has a tang, at times is without savor, sometimes submerging the valleys with great floods. In time and with water, everything changes"
Leonardo described water as "the vehicle of nature" ("vetturale di natura"), believing water to be to the world what blood is to our bodies.
  ©: http://witcombe.sbc.edu

Leonardo da Vinci was a truly remarkable polymath. He is variously known as a painter, sculptor, scientist (geologist, botanist), architect, engineer, musician and inventor. But, amongst his many areas of expertise, Leonardo could perhaps also be called an hydrologist or fluid dynamicist because of his fascination with, and study of, water, flow and rivers. Water and rivers were central to his work and thinking in many fields, including his art".
  ©: https://paulhumphriesriverecology.wordpress.com

The water that found itself in the proud sea, its own element, conceived a desire to rise up into the air. Aided by the element of fire, it ascended as a subtle vapor that nearly equaled the subtlety of the air. Then, as it rose higher, it passed into colder and subtler air, and was abandoned by the fire. Its small particles shrank, clustered, and grew heavy; as they sank, their pride turned to flight, and they fell from the sky. The water was then drunk by the dry earth, where it was imprisoned for a long time and did penance for its sin.

picture: 'Wolf and Eagle' by Leonardo DA VINCI
You can read all of Leonardo da Vinci's fables, and those of other Italian writers in Renaissance Fables, translated by David Birch - learn more about this book from the Arizona Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
  ©: www.medievalists.net

tags: #Leonardo da Vinci

253  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

"I have loved thee, Ocean!
And my joy. Of youthful sports was on thy breast to be.
Borne, like thy bubbles, onward; from a boy.
I wanton'd with thy breakers, and laid my hand upon thy mane,
as I do here".
lord Byron

Here's a page with hundreds of quotes and poems about the ocean:
  ©: Wikiquote
tags: #poems, #quotes, #lord byron

253a  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

"I really don't know why it is that all of us are so committed to the sea, except I think it's because in addition to the fact that the sea changes, and the light changes, and ships change, it's because we all came from the sea. And it is an interesting biological fact that all of us have in our veins the exact same percentage of salt in our blood that exists in the ocean, and, therefore, we have salt in our blood, in our sweat, in our tears. We are tied to the ocean. And when we go back to the sea - whether it is to sail or to watch it - we are going back from whence we came."
Remarks at the Dinner for the America's Cup Crews, September 14 1962
John F. Kennedy
  ©:
tags: #poems, #quotes, #

253b  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

"There's nothing wrong with enjoying looking at the surface of the ocean itself, except that when you finally see what goes on underwater,you realize that you've been missing the whole point of the ocean. Staying on the surface all the time is like going to the circus and staring at the outside of the tent."
Dave Barry
  ©:
tags: #poems, #quotes, #

253c  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

"Ocean, A body of water occupying about two-thirds of a world made for man — who has no gills."
Ambrose Bierce, The Unabridged Devil's Dictionary
  ©:
tags: #poems, #quotes, #

253d  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

"I am a sailor, you're my first mate
We signed on together, we coupled our fate
Hauled up our anchor, determined not to fail
For the heart's treasure, together we set sail
With no maps to guide us, we steered our own course
Rode out the storms when the winds were gale force
Sat out the doldrums in patience and hope
Working together, we learned how to cope.
Life is an ocean and love it a boat
In troubled waters it keeps us afloat
When we started the voyage there was just me and you
Now gathered round us we have our own crew
Together we're in this relationship
We built it with care to last the whole trip
Our true destination's not marked on any chart
We're navigating the shores of the heart."
John McDermott
  ©:
tags: #poems, #quotes, #

253e  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

I spent uncounted hours sitting at the bow looking at the water and the sky, studying each wave, different from the last, seeing how it caught the light, the air, the wind; watching patterns, the sweep of it all, and letting it take me.
The sea.
Gary Paulsen, Caught By the Sea
  ©:
tags: #poems, #quotes, #

253f  Ocean Art -  -Ocean quotes & poems

"But in a way you can say that after leaving the sea, after all those millions of years of living inside of the sea, we took the ocean with us. When a woman makes a baby, she gives it water, inside her body, to grow in. That water inside her body is almost exactly the same as the water of the sea. It is salty, by just the same amount. She makes a little ocean, in her body. And not only this. Our blood and our sweating, they are both salty, almost exactly like the water from the sea is salty. We carry oceans inside of us, in our blood and our sweat. And we are crying the oceans, in our tears."
Gregory David Roberts, Shantaram
  ©:
tags: #poems, #quotes, #

ref. # 254  Ocean Performing Arts -Procol Harum -'A Salty Dog' Lyrics

"All hands on deck, we've run a float,
I heard the Captain cry.
Explore the ship, replace the cook,
Let no one leave alive.
Across the Straits, around the Horn,
How far can sailors fly?
A twisted path, our tortured course,
And no one left alive.

We sailed for parts unknown to man,
Where ships come home to die.
No lofty peak, nor fortress bold,
Could match our captain's eye.
Upon the seventh seasick day,
We made our port of call.
A sand so white, and sea so blue,
No mortal place at all.

We fired the guns, and burned the mast,
And rowed from ship to shore.
The captain cried, we sailors wept,
Our tears were tears of joy!
Now many moons and many Junes,
Have passed since we made land.
A Salty Dog, the seaman's log,
Your witness, my own hand".

  ©: Songwriters: Keith REID, Gary BROOKER   'A Salty Dog' lyrics © T.R.O. INC. www.lyricsfreak.com
tags: #A Salty Dog #Procol Harum

254-T I M E L I N E

this Timeline is under constant improvement. Please help: robert@WATER-artproject.com
0800BC  -Odyssey by HOMER, #022a
0600BC  -HANNO the Navigator, #028 -Northwest African Coast
0500BC  -HIMILCO, #028a -the Mediterranean Sea
0330BC  -PYTHEAS of marseilles, #022 -around western Europe to Thule Island
0264-0241BC  -First PUNIC WAR, #140, Rome versus Carthago
0800 ca.  -Hawai?iloa,#000, Hawaiian Islands
0900  -Gunnbjörn ULFSSON, #000, Greenland
1000 ca.  -ERIK the RED and Leif ERICSON, Viking navigators, discovered and settled Greenland, Helluland (possibly Baffin Island), Markland (perhaps Labrador) and Vinland (probably Newfoundland). The Greenland colony lasted until the 15th century, but the settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, the only known site of a Norse village in North America outside of Greenland, is estimated to have endured less than a decade.
1300 ca.  -Abu BAKR II, #000, Brazil (?)
1351 - 1354  -Ibn BANTUTTA (1304/02/25 - 1368/9), #028b, Sahelian Kingdoms
1427 - 1460  -HENRI the Navigator, #000, Great permanent wind wheel of Volta do Mar #015a, the North Atlantic Gyre. Recognition of the Sargasso Sea, Madeira, Azores and West African coast. Cape Verde
1460/12/29 - 1524/12/24  -Vasco da Gama, #016
1482 - 1485  -Diogo CÃO landed in Namibia, #030, Congo River, Angola and Namibi
1480 (ca.)  -Tupaq Inka Yupanki. 1594-1597 Rediscovered by the Spanish, #000, Galápagos Islands, Rapa Nui
1482 - 1485  -Bartolomeu DIAS #000, South Africa. Connected the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. South Atlantic Volta do Mar winds
1493 - 1502  -Cristopher COLUMBUS, #000, Caribbean, Venezuela (South America) and Central America. Use and development of the North Atlantic routes
1497 - 1499  -Vasco da GAMA's first voyage to India, #147, Atlantic Ocean (outer routes) and Indian Ocean, Sea route to India (Europe to Asia)
1500-1501  -Pedro Álvares CABRAL and Diogo DIAS, among others., #000, Brazil, South Atlantic Volta do Mar, Indian Ocean, Madagascar, gate of the Red Sea (Bab-elMandeb Strait); India. Voyage that united Europe, Americas, Africa and Asia
1502/02/10  -Vasco da GAMA's second voyage to India, #147
1512-1513  -António de ABREU and Francisco SERRÃO, #000, Timor, Moluccas (Australasia Pacific Ocean)
1516  -Thomas MORE writes 'Utopia', #055
1519-1521  -Hernán CORTÉS, #000, Mexico
1519-1522  -Ferdinand MAGELLAN and Juan Sebastián ELCANO, #000, Circumnavigation of the Globe. Connection from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean (America to Asia
1525-1527  -Aleixo GARCIA, #000, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and east of the Inca Empire
1528  -Alvár Núñes Cabeza de VACA, #000, Traveled across the Southwest of North America (Completely)
1531-1534  -Francisco PIZARRO, #000, Peru, Inca Empire and Ecuador
1531-1534  -Francisco de ORELLANA, #000, Ecuador and Brazil. Length of the Amazon river
1534-1542  -Jacques CARTIER, #000, Canada, Saint Lawrence River
1564-1565  -Andrés de URDANETA, #000, Pacific Ocean's Volta do Mar (Asia to America)
1571/10/07  -Battle of Lepanto, #250a
1574-1631  -Henry HUDSON, #000, North, Canada (Hudson Bay)
1594-1597  -WILLEM BARENTZ, #000, going North
1603/05/26  -Federico SPINOLA, #252c, unsuccessful attempt to ram the blockade of Dutch ships at Sluis
1633  -Hugo de GROOT (Hugo GROTIUS): 'Mare Libero' 1633, #106
1640 ca.  -Makassar People before. Explored by Abel TASMAN, #000, Australia
1640-1641  -Ivan Yuryevich MOSKVITIN, #000, Siberia and Pacific coast.
1642-1643  -Abel TASMAN, #000, Oceania
1642-1643  -Abel TASMAN, #000, Oceania
1648-1651  -António Raposo Tavares, #000, Brazil (Circumnavigation), Paraguay, Bolivia and Peru. Connected the River Plate Basin to the Andes and to the mouth of the Amazon River
1652/04/06  -Jan van RIEBEECK, #034, landing at Cape of Good Hope
1768-1779  -James COOK, #000, Oceania
1771  -Moric BENOVSKY, #000, North Pacific, western Alaska, Far East Eurasian Coast
1799-1803  -Alexander von Humboldt, #000, Central America and Latin America
1804-1806  -LEWIS and CLARK Expedition, #000, Northwest Plateau of North America
1831/06/01  -James Clark ROSS, #000, The North Magnetic Pole
1877  -Serpa PINTO, #000, Exploration of the Zambeze river region, Central Africa, Angola, Mozambique, Zambia, Zaire
1878  -Adolf Erik NORDENSIÖLD, #000, The Northern Sea Route
1909/01/16  -Douglas MAWSON, Edgeworth David, and Alistair Mackay, #000, The South Magnetic Pole
1909/04/06  -Robert PEARY, #000, The North Pole
1911/12/14  -Roald AMUNDSEN, #000, The South Pole
1912/01/17  -Robert Falcon SCOTT ,#000, The South Pole
tags: #timeline, #discovery, #discoverers

260 -the Exhibition

link to the exhibition WATER -an artproject The Art Photography has been created in such a way -by layered printing, combining images and unique techniques- that the works become 3-dimensional. they all measure 120 x 70 cm., framed and packed in flight cases, ready to travel the world!

see some examples here: www.water-artproject.com/portfolio.html

For more information please contact:
robert@WATER-artproject.com
Robert Schilder
Turkeye 6
4508PB WATERLANDKERKJE
the Netherlands
+31-6-21138318
www.robertschilder.com
  ©: Robert Schilder 2014
tags: #Robert Schilder #Exhibition, #contact, #address

260a  -5 Postcards from the Resource Files

5 Postcards from the Resourcefiles Buy these Postcards and sponsor the exhibition. Read more
tags: #postcards #sponsoring
 

Facebook

Please like & share this exciting project on FACEBOOK

Pinterest

A lot of additional resources material has been collected on Pinterest.
Take a look!
and there is also a portfolio on Behancewww.saatchiart.com and Fine Art America

About

selfie Robert SchilderRobert Schilder is an art photographer & organiser / initiator of projects related to art; founder of Circle-24, a worldwide foundation of artists who keep each other informed about trends and developments.
Copyright © ÍMAGEPOINT 2016-2017 All rights reserved